What is analysis?

If you arrive at this article you’d probably want to know “What is analysis?” Or “How to improve analytical skills”.

Since the beginning of the Internet, information and data became a time to get it even if silent. According to one theory, the amount of data circulating in the world is larger than the number of sand grains present in the world.

On the other hand, however, the greater the amount of information and data, the more difficult it is to handle them and the importance of “having an appropriate analytical perspective” is increasing day by day.

However, even if it says “analysis” in a bite, unless you understand “what what to do?”, It is common to put enormous amounts of information and data in front of it. And the worst is that it is a state that analyzes information and data in a carpet bombing manner without any viewpoint and can not derive valuable suggestions for the time consuming argument.

This time, I will explain about “analysis” and “9 essential viewpoints to acquire analytical skill” about ‘analysis’ which is indispensable only because data and information overflow. Also, together with “Procedure of analysis” will be explained.

If you are what is analysis? If you want to improve your analytical skills after understanding, please read this comment to the end.

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table of contents[indicate]
What is analysis? Define the meaning of analysis
What does analysis mean?
I will ask you a question again. What will you answer when asked “What is analysis?”

With the increase in information and data, “Analysis” also has various “analytical methods” in the midst of the current situation. Even just thinking about it, the following analytical methods exist.

Quantitative analysis (data analysis): Analysis of data represented by numerical values
Qualitative analysis (information analysis): Analysis of events and phenomena not expressible by numerical values
Statistical analysis: Analysis using statistical methods such as correlation analysis and regression analysis
Current status analysis: Analysis to clarify the current situation based on quantitative data and qualitative information
Task analysis: Analysis to clarify tasks based on quantitative data and qualitative information
Market analysis: Analysis using framework such as PEST, 3C, 5 Force
Business analysis: Analysis to clarify management issues by using financial statements etc.
If so many different analytical methods are muddy, is it honest that “simple analysis is something?” Even if asked “can not be said unconditionally”?

By the way, “definition of analysis” by Digital Hiroden is as follows.

Definition of “analysis” – definition of digital illegitimate

Divide complex matters into individual elements and ingredients, and clarify its composition.
Regardless of the type of analysis method, what is common to any “analysis” is that the various information and data appearing in the world are intertwined with various elements in various ways, and it is useful only by caught vaguely entirely It is a problem consciousness that it is difficult to obtain suggestions.

In order to understand precisely the information and data of cobblestone mixing, it is not enough to grasp them as a whole, “examine individual information and data” and further “deepen the relationship of each relationship” It is necessary to dig up.

Based on these, the definitions of the analyzes “Which analysis is true” that the writer of this blog thinks is as follows.

What is “analysis”? Definition 

Distinguish one element of information and data and elucidate “What is each?”
Elucidating “relationships” of each “after solving” what is each piece of information and data “.
Without fear of misunderstanding, every phenomenon is made up of “facts” and “relationships”. It is the essence of “analysis” to clarify the actual condition of them.

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What is the purpose of the analysis? Purpose of current situation analysis and data analysis
I am sorry for further questions, but what would you answer when asked “What is the purpose of the analysis?”

Analysis is “to distinguish between information and data” and “to see those relationships”, but as you go through the analysis work “analysis” itself tends to be the purpose. This is “there is” in the analysis work.

The purpose of the analysis is to encourage “correct decision-making” and “correct action” through correct understanding of information and data. Because it is because there is a danger of misjudging by looking only at the surface phenomenon, leading to wrong decision making and action.

Conversely, work that does not lead to “decision making” or “action” is not said to be “analysis”. Therefore, when analyzing, always keep in mind “What kind of judgment do you use?” And “What kind of action will it lead to?”

Difference between aggregation and analysis
Here, we will also explain the difference between “total” and “analysis”.

“Summing up” means literally “collecting” and “totaling” data. In other words, it is “counting” to measure how big it will be if you add it up.

Sometimes there are people who mistake “making graphs = analysis”, but the graph only visualized “aggregation”, which does not mean “analyze”.

On the other hand, “analysis” is to elucidate “the way of fact” and “its relationship” as described above. In other words, instead of simply “collecting and counting data”, you have to skill “look through relationships” “insight” based on them.

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Difference between analysis and analysis
Furthermore, in order to understand the meaning of “analysis” more clearly, we will also describe the difference from “analysis” which is a synonym for analysis.

From the conclusion, both “analysis” and “analysis” do not change their meaning. Because both will become “analysis” if translated into English.

However, in Japan,

Examining and examining the contents regardless of numerical value or qualitative information = analysis
Examine and examine the contents professionally and numerically = analysis
Often used in the context of.

For example, “data analysis” is sometimes called “data analysis” because it is professional and numerical. However, “management analysis” and “task analysis” etc. deal with both “qualitative information” and “numerical value”. Therefore, it is not called “management analysis” “task analysis”.

In other words, in Japan, remember that “analysis” is a concept that encompasses “analysis” and is “analysis> analysis”.

Nine viewpoints and examples to improve analytical power
Let’s explain about the nine perspectives that will improve analytical skills from here.

Example of 9 viewpoints for improving analytical capability – 1: viewpoint to capture “size”
Analysis perspective 1: size

The foundation for analyzing information and data is to have a better perception of “size” than anything. The reasons are roughly divided into two.

“Degree of size” has a big influence on decision making
For example suppose you were a marketer. Before now,

Market with a latent market size of one year’s worth
A market with a latent market size of 1,000 yen
If there are two markets, Which analysis would you prefer? Perhaps you should give priority to the analysis of the latter

In this way, “degree of overall size” has a big influence on “decision making” and “action” by itself. This is the first reason to have correct recognition for “size”.

“Whole” decides the meaning of the part
The second reason is that “the overall size” is indispensable for “meaning of parts”. For example, let’s assume that there are now two investment projects in front of you.

Investment case A: ROI is 120%
Investment case B: ROI is 200%
When comparing only ROI, ‘investment case B is overwhelmingly advantageous’. But what if we add the concept of “size” as follows?

Investment case A: 100 yen
Investment case B: 10 pure circles
When adding the concept of “size”

Investment case A return = 120 yen sharp: Project profit minus investment amount is 20 yuan
Investment case B return = 20 yen sharp: Project profit minus investment amount is 10 yuan
. In other words, adding the concept of “size” reverses investment decisions, which is advantageous to “investment case A”.

In this way, analysis sometimes accompanies “percentage” or “%”, but emphasizes them, but sometimes forgets “meaning of parts viewed from the whole” too much.

Therefore, when analyzing, first consider priority and meaning while grasping “degree of overall size”.

9 viewpoints for improving analytical power and example 2: a viewpoint to be divided
Analysis perspective 2: to divide

The character of “minute” of analysis is a combination of eight and swords, which means that one thing is divided into two or more things. And the character of “Analysis” is said to represent that the tree is separated finely with an ax.

Since information and data are established by complicated entanglement of various elements, it is difficult for effective hand to be born simply by looking at the whole. However, if information and data can be decomposed into elements and carefully examined one by one, closer to the essence, it is possible to lead to appropriate decision making and action.

Let’s consider a case where you were ordered to reduce companywide costs. Just grasping “cost” collectively, you should not have any idea what “what to do”. But what if you look at “do not care” as follows?

Manufacturing cost
Material cost : The cost of purchasing the materials necessary for producing the product
Labor costs : labor costs to produce products
Other expenses : Tool purchase cost, depreciation etc.
Selling costs
Operating expenses : Personnel expenses of sales personnel, etc. Cost of operating activities
Marketing Expenses : Expenses related to marketing activities such as advertisement expenses etc.
Company maintenance fee : Expenses required to maintain company such as personnel expenses of accounting and general affairs personnel, rent, office equipment lease fee
Financial expenses
Borrowing interest rate : Interest expense for interest-bearing debt
In this way, even if it is caught collectively, it is difficult for clues to be found. If “cost reduction” can also be “divided”, it is easy to find “room for cost reduction” by seeing “waste” by checking each one finely. Become.

Also, in ‘marketing’ the ‘split’ is a very important way of thinking.

In the marketing world, we begin by analyzing “analyze the market separately” in the market capture. This is referred to as “market segmentation” in the technical term of marketing.

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The market is simply borne out vaguely and the effective action is hard to born. Therefore, from the viewpoint of decomposing the market into several parts, selecting an important market with homogeneous needs and desires from among them, and formulating a positioning and marketing mix that dominates the market is there.

Since it is important, it is repeated, but let’s keep in mind that “dividing” is a core task which is indispensable for analyzing information and data.

Nine viewpoints for improving analytical power and Example 3: Comparative viewpoint
Analysis perspective 3: Compare

“To compare” is “to divide”, it is the most fundamental analysis method and it is said to be “to be compared with analysis”.

Because a single piece of information or data that can not be judged good or bad can also be compared with something to overcome the relative features.

And “to compare”, there are two broadly divided viewpoints.

“Compare” viewpoint -1: Compare “quantity”
The most orthodox ‘compare’ viewpoint is to “compare quantities”. As mentioned above, “difference in quantity” is a measure of “importance” when sort of prioritizing things.

“Compare” viewpoint 2: Compare “quality”
“Compare the quality” refers to comparing two or more different analytes and finding “differences: different parts” and “similarity: similar parts” and examining them in detail.

As already mentioned that one of the objectives of analysis is “identifying elements”, things are “different parts” are “originality” and are “added value”. Therefore, in order to “distinguish elements”, “to find originality and added value” it is essential to recognize “difference” that stands out as “its own likeness”.

On the other hand, “similarity: similar parts” are elements that are inherent in common despite being different things, so “essential value” essential for making them I can often find out.

9 viewpoints to acquire analytical skills -4: viewpoints and examples to analyze ‘relationship’
Analysis perspective 4: Analyze relationships

“Analyzing relationships” refers to understanding and understanding “relationships” between two or more pieces of information and data.

Is it “independent”? Is it “correlation”?
When there are multiple pieces of information and data, the relationship between those things is either “independent” or “correlation”.

“Independence” is a relationship in which two things do not exert any influence at all, that is, even if one thing changes, the other thing represents a relationship in which there is no necessity to change anything.

One “correlation” is a relationship in which two things have some influence and are exerted.

In particular, “correlation” brings tremendous benefits when you guess or judge something. The reason is that if you know that a certain number of things are in a correlation, it will be possible to guess that when one changes, the other will also be affected and change.

Is “simple correlation”? “Causal relationship”?
Furthermore, if it is possible to find a “causal relation” which is a special correlation among “correlations”, more useful estimation can be made.

“Causal relationship” refers to a state in which one change is “a relationship between cause and result” that causes the other change. If the causal relationship can be clarified, “cause” can be generated by artificially generating “cause”. Conversely, if it is possible to artificially eliminate the “cause”, it is also possible to prevent “bad result” from being generated.

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In this way, if you can find a causal relationship between information and data, applying the causal relationship to various things makes it possible to take effective actions.

Nine viewpoints to improve analytical power and Example 5: Viewpoint to analyze “variations”
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Things that exist in the world are not always clearly distinguishable by the dichotomy as “right or left” or “1 or 0”.

For example, “age” is a world of “degree” that exists continuously on a single axis “How much do you get older than” the world of distinction?

And, there are variations that sometimes exist in the “degree world” that exists continuously. Your business should also have “quality variations”, “variations in salesperson’s performance”, “variations in sales by store location” and so on.

In “data analysis”, it is more likely to deal with “average”, but at the same time capturing “variations” makes it possible to discern the truth hidden behind “average”. Let’s show an example.

Let’s assume that you are now responsible for sales representatives and you are responsible for planning measures to improve sales at the A and B offices. The “average sales figures per sales personnel” of both businesses are as follows.

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As far as these figures are concerned, the average sales per sales person at both business sites is exactly the same as 13,340 thousand yen, which seems to be competing.

However, for each of the A and B offices, we decomposed the factors into individual sales personnel and analyzed not only the average but also the “unevenness”, it was as follows.

f: id: missiondrivencom: 20181028181943p: plain

Graphing them in terms of “variations” will be as follows.

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In this way, the A office has few variations, there are many sales representatives with average ability, while the B business has many variations,

High performer who sold 18 million yen or more per person: 3 people
Middle performer close to average: 6 people
A low performer who is significantly inferior to the average and has sold only 3 million yen units: 1 person
It is understood that it is divided into three layers. From this,

B office is “high performer-dependent type”, and if one high-performer leaves work, the impact on sales will be great
There is a high possibility that skills and know-how are not shared with high performer, middle performer, low performer
Suggestions such as. As a result, we can find the direction of action “transfer high-performance expertise of business establishment B to sales representatives at both A & B sites.” This is a conclusion that is obtained only by analyzing data “fluctuation” of each salesperson’s sales.

In this way, “analysis of variations” sometimes brings about the discovery “exception” or “the existence of a layer of different quality” and may give great suggestions for action.

9 viewpoints to improve analytical power and example-6: perspective to analyze ‘process’
Analysis perspective 6: Analyze process

There is a “process” for always making things in things. And if you retroactively backtracking the “process” from things in front of you, you will end up in the event that is the cause.

Furthermore, if it is possible to grasp the relationship between cause and result (causal relation) by following things, work, or flow of money, it is possible to clarify the location of the problem and the solution method.

It is very important in the business world to put in a habit of “thinking after the process” custom. This is because it is necessary to “process business” to provide value to customers.

However, when trying to capture “problem of organization”, corporate organizations differentiated vertically by function are not suitable for thinking in process. That is why the habit of analyzing consciously and forcibly “thinking through things, work, and flow of money” analysis is important.

9 viewpoints to improve analytical power and example-7: viewpoint to analyze “time series”
Analysis viewpoint 7: Analyze time series

The things that are happening right now are not something that appeared there suddenly. “Current situation” is because it was born after “past course”.

Therefore, in order to correctly understand “current situation”, it is insufficient to analyze current information and data “only” in detail, why “Why is the current situation so?” Viewpoint is essential.

And if we can grasp “the tendency from the past to the present situation”, it will be possible to read the big story with clues to them and to examine future ways.

When analyzing time series data, there are two broadly divided viewpoints. Let’s briefly explain below.

Analysis perspective to capture “time series” -1: Analyze regularity
Regularity refers to the “pattern of change that appears repeatedly”. For example, it is a pattern of change in which the following things appear repeatedly.

Long-term trend:
tendency to change in one direction over a long term, such as aging of the population, digitization, climate change · Trend
Periodic fluctuation: Changes
in periodicity and circulation every two to three years, such as price fluctuation due to business cycles and inventory circulation
Short term fluctuation:
Changes periodically seen within a year, such as seasonal fluctuations and year-end adjustment fluctuations
Irregular fluctuations: Irregular fluctuations due to
sudden booming and sudden social incidents / accidents
If we can discover “patterns of changes that appear repeatedly” through analysis of time series data, predicting changes in advance will make it easier to lead to opportunity creation and risk avoidance actions.

Analysis viewpoint to capture “time series” -2: Analyze projection value · inflection point
“Projection value” refers to a sudden event that deviates from the regularity so far. And the “inflection point” is a turning point / turning point that changed its regularity despite having regularity in a certain direction (rising shoulder to the right / descending to the right) etc. .

“Probability values and inflection points exist” suggests that “different dynamics and mechanisms have started to work, and structural changes that are different from past common sense are occurring .

“Structural change” can sometimes influence the future of your business.

Therefore, if you find some “protruding value” or “inflection point” through time series data analysis, what happened at that time? “” What kind of mechanics worked? “” That mechanics In light of that, what is going to happen in the future? “Let’s habit of analyzing and guessing.

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Nine viewpoints to improve analytical capability and example-8: viewpoint to combine
Analysis perspective 8: Analyze in combination

Information and data may change in appearance by analyzing a combination of several viewpoints. For example, please see competition comparison data of the following item satisfaction survey.

f: id: missiondrivencom: 20181028182214 p: plain

If we receive the above data obediently, our company’s product A exceeds the satisfaction score of competing product B in 8 out of 10 items and it can be regarded as “victory”. However, with this, can we judge that “our company A’s products are more competitive than competing products B?”

Next, please see the following data. It is data which combined “importance viewed from target” to the data on product satisfaction level.

f: id: missiondrivencom: 20181028182210p: plain

If you look at the graph above, although our own product A exceeds the competitive product B in the 8 items of satisfaction item, the target is “practical” and “useful” which are the two most important items It is understood that it is lower than competitive product B. In other words, it is in a state that “the target is winning with elements that do not place much importance and the target is losing the item that emphasizes the target” state.

If you look at this, you will find that you can no longer say that “your company’s product A is competitive compared to competing product B”.

Thus, one-sided data analysis sometimes misleads conclusions and judgments. Therefore, when conducting data analysis, in the light of that purpose “let’s combine” combine multiple elements “custom.

Nine viewpoints to improve analytical power and examples-9: Structural viewpoint
Analysis perspective 9: Structure and analyze

Structuring refers to revealing the components that make a thing happen and the relationship between its components.

At the beginning, the analysis said “to examine individual elements and deepen the relationship between their respective relationships”, but that can be said as a culmination of “structured”.

Structuring is often arranged in a tree like “cause investigation tree” or “problem solution tree”.

Natural trees are divided into several branches from one trunk, plus leaves, flowers and fruits at the ends of the branches, thus playing a single function as a whole. Just like this, many problems in the world often form a major problem that becomes a trunk by the combination of small tasks that become branches and leaves.

Therefore, when analyzing complicated things or solving problems, it is often effective to take a tree as a whole, divide it into elements like branched branches, and think about meaning for each element .

And to analyze the structured tree, the following two viewpoints are effective.

Structure and analyze viewpoint -1: Capture trees as “composition”
Grasping the “whole and part” of things statically and grasping “the inclusive relation of the whole and the part” and “the difference in the scale of the parts” is a view from “view as a composition” viewpoint.

For example, when a woman is regarded as “whole” “part”

An infant
A student
Single lady
DINKS female
Housework housewife
Senior women
It is in “inclusion relation” seen from “female whole” including such as. To put it another way, the above 1-8 women are all “female-wide” relationships if they add everything up.

And from the viewpoint of “female whole”, if you can grasp the “scale” of 1-8 corresponding to “part”, “what segment will you sell to what extent?” “How much marketing investment is necessary for that?” It becomes easy to think and it is an important suggestion in thinking about the marketing strategy.

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Structure and analyze point of view 2: Tree as “mechanism”
The second is to grasp the mechanism dynamically by catching the tree. Structure correlations and causal relationships, which elements are responsible for which elements? It can be said that it is a viewpoint to grasp.

If structuring of things is done properly, by clarifying the mechanism of the problem occurrence and closing the main plug, it is possible to solve the problem derived there from the root. It will also make it easier to develop effective means based on causality.

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Method of analysis
Next, let’s explain the basic analysis method.

Method of analysis 1: Grasp the purpose
Analysis is about trying to find the cause of a thing and to find a means to change some situation in a desired direction. Therefore, there are objects such as clarification of some cause or discovery of some means in the analysis.

In other words, no matter how much groundbreaking rule it is discovered, if it is not related to the purpose of the analysis, its discovery is of no value.

In the analysis, there is a realistic purpose leading to the next action, such as elucidation of some cause or discovery of some means, the purpose of which is to determine the way of analysis work.

Therefore, when analyzing, why do you analyze “why” and “what for”? Let’s habit to check carefully.

Analysis method 2: Set up a framework
In order to examine something that is difficult to understand only by capturing the whole vaguely, it is necessary to devise a framework such as “how far do you want to capture the whole range?” And “how to set up cut points when dividing into parts”.

There is no absolute right answer in the way of making the framework itself, but “multifaceted viewpoint” and “logical thinking” are useful in considering the framework.

In the commentary below, we will explain in detail about “how to use your head” in “multifaceted thinking and logical thinking”, so if you have time to read it together, it should be some hint.

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In the business world, there is a business framework which is “framework of thinking” that is used over time. It is also an option to advance analysis using these frameworks.

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Analysis method 3: Collect information and data according to the framework
Naturally, analytical work can not be done unless there is information or data that becomes the “material” of analysis. However, in a common case, it is a case that trying to gather information or data that seems to be relevant anyhow in a carpet bombing while conscious of the analysis theme somewhat ambiguously.

Although mentioned at the beginning, the carpet bombing-like information gathering / data collection involves the risk of “time out”, and if too much time is spent too much analysis analysis of the essence becomes unnecessary or the timing of the decision to be analyzed Will be delayed.

There is no such thing that 100% of the necessary information and data are surely gathered in this business. As for information and data, the feelings of “the better the better the better” is the feeling, but let us realize that viewing “productivity” is necessary for information gathering and data collection.

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Analysis method- 4: Analyze information and data and gain insight
After collecting information and collecting data, it is the next step of analyzing. We have already discussed the point of view for analyzing information and data, so please do see it again.

In addition to analysis, there are two other things necessary in addition to “perspective”. It is ‘observational power’ and ‘insight’.

If there is no “observability” in the first place, you can not notice the regularity of information and data, salient values, inflection points. Furthermore, without “insight”, it is impossible to see “causes” and “mechanisms” behind them.

In the following article I will explain about “how to train observational power and insight” which is essential for “improvement of analytical ability”, so please refer to it.

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Analysis method 5: to draw conclusions and make decisions
The final step is to give a “conclusion” for analytical purposes based on information & data analysis.

But no matter how precisely the analysis is done things can never be 100% elucidated. There are always “black boxes that are not obvious” in the changing environment and competitors’ movements every day. And as there is a black box, there will always be a risk of “not so” in the conclusion we got from the analysis.

However, as the purpose of the analysis is to connect decision-making and action, it is also a point of view of the analyst’s arms, as to how to fill the black boxes that were not clarified, how to evaluate the risks and lead to decision-making.

In that case, a comprehensive judgment that incorporates not only analytical ability but also the following elements is necessary.

Analysis and Decision Criteria -1: Law
Through research in economics, psychology, or business administration, a theory considered highly reproducible with high probability

Analysis and decision-making criterion-2: rule of thumb
The theoretical backing is not sufficient, but from the past multiple experiences it can be predicted with certain accuracy that “this will be done in this manner”

Analysis and Decision Criteria – 3: Cases
Although it is only an individual case, by generalization and generalization, in the case where it is recognized that the causal relation and the mechanism in the background are common

Analysis and Decision Criteria-4: Estimation
Empirical support is not enough, but considering the viewpoint of the overall thing comprehensively, reasoning seems reasonable

Analysis and Decision Criteria -5: View
Opinion / view of experts familiar with the field

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Books that acquire analytical skills | Recommended books 6 volumes
To conclude, let’s introduce “books that acquire analytical skills” that you can recommend to you. The criteria selected are as follows. I picked up any of the following.

A book of data analysis that k_bird actually reads, and it seems that it was simply “wonderful”.
Data analysis related books that are actually useful for strategy planning practices and case sharing.
Data analysis related books that have been read over many years and that can find “essence” and “principle” that will not change even when the times are crossed.
Of course, it all comes with a comment “Why should I read?”

Books Recommended Books That Gain Analytical Ability Books-1:
“Analytical Techniques” for Decision-Making – The Thinking Method of Problem Discovery and Solving to Maximize Business Results
There are also many misunderstandings that misunderstand “analysis” as “tabulation of numerical values” or “creation of graphs”.

However, the analysis is for problem solving and decision making. And it is important to analyze and analyze that contributes to decision making, it is the ability to find out “cuts” of analysis.

This book is a masterpiece describing the importance of former McKinsey & Company consultants “how-tos of analysis”, as well as the “cuts” that are necessary for analysis.

The publication of this book dates back to 1998.

It is still being read through after the era of rapid change because the essence which can not be shaken is drawn beyond the times.

From the perspective of analysis, there are various aspects such as “think size,” “to compare,” to “think in time series”, “to think apart”.

If your analysis remains in ‘summary’ or ‘graphing’, it should be a book that scales fall from the eyes.

“Analytical techniques” for decision making
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Later Masatake diamond company
Rakuten Books
Books to be developed analytical skills Recommendation book 2:
Textbook of data analysis for active in the world learned in Nissan
This book is a book that explains the “data analysis method” globally applicable by authors who worked for Nissan for over 10 years, and made numerous proposals to Carlos Ghosn and foreign officers.

Nonetheless, the content is described in an easy-to-understand manner, and since “basic analysis method”, “how to make a story from analytical figures”, “how to present presentation data” etc. are explained along the procedure, It is a high-standard practice book.

Data analysis tends to be drowned in “sea of data” otherwise, but even if “cuts” and “procedures” are suppressed, practical analysis that contributes to problem solving becomes possible.

This book is a good book worth learning such “cuts” and “procedures” and to learn the practice of data analysis.

Textbook on data analysis for active in the world learned at Nissan
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Kichiro Kashiwagi Nikkei BP Inc.
Rakuten Books
Book Recommendation
to Gain Analytical Power Book 3 – Data Analysis Power as Weapons
The main feature of this book is that it explains the broad meaning of statistical methods frequently used in business and explains the flow of analysis.

Speaking of “statistics” there are many business people who shy away as “mathematical and professional stories”.
However, statistics can also be used without mathematical knowledge so that it is not necessary to know the structure of the clutch and the structure of the engine in driving the car.

This book focuses on “understanding of facts” which is essential for problem solving, and is a book that explains the application to business while explaining the statistics starting from “logic” rather than mathematical formula.

What matters in statistics is not to “be able to calculate mathematical expressions”, but to understand the logic behind the scenes and make use of it in business.

If you feel that ‘you are not good at statistics’, it is a good book that pays that weak consciousness.

Data analysis as a weapon
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Tatsuo Nakanishi / Shinichiro Hatake Japanese business publishing company
Rakuten Books
that will acquire analytical skills Recommendation Book 4: Books that can do data and statistical analysis that does not say “it, it has grounds?”
This book is a useful book for those who acquire statistical things to drop statistics thinking into practice.

In this book, a newcomer who analyzes data for the first time introduces the process of gathering data, analyzing it, and creating a presentation material with a story.

Also on techniques of analysis such as regression analysis “Techniques on how to do in Excel” are packed with techniques that can be used from today.

By utilizing data & statistical analysis in various aspects introduced by this book, you should be able to make “prediction” and “decision making” with higher added value, which is different from the past It is.

A book on which data and statistical analysis can not be said “Does it have basis?”
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Yoshiharu Kashiwagi Japan business publishing company
Rakuten Books
Book Recommendation
to Gain Analytical Ability Books-5: Statistics Understanding with Manga Regression Analysis Edition
This book is a book that explains “regression analysis” which is indispensable in predicting things and events.

As you can see from the cover image, you can comment on “regression analysis” very easily using comics.

“Regression analysis” is a statistical analysis method mainly used for predicting things, but if it can understand even the logic behind the regression analysis, it can be applied to “multiple regression analysis” and “quantification theory” It should be easy to understand.

Various mathematical expressions appear in this book, but edited to understand to some extent even if skipping to some extent.

By all means, I want you to understand the logic behind “prediction” and “regression analysis” in this book.

Statistical regression analysis understood by manga
posted with Yomeleba
Nobu Takahashi, Inoue Iroha, Trend Prohome Company
Rakuten Books
Books Recommended Books
That Gain Analytical Ability Books-6: Factor Analysis that Nobody Tells You – Factor Analysis Introduction
This book is a book which is explained in “Factor Analysis” which is essential for marketing.

“Factor analysis” is a statistical method that is essential when segmenting consumers by lifestyle and values.

“Factor analysis” is commented out very clearly, as it is being sung in subtitle “Introduction to factor analysis which absolutely does not come up with formulas”.

By reading this book you will be able to understand the logic behind the factor analysis.

Unless you are aiming for a data scientist, the multivariate analysis method you should understand as a marketing representative is enough for “regression analysis” and “factor analysis”.

I would like you to understand the logic behind “factor analysis” in this book.

Factor analysis that nobody taught – Introduction to factor analysis that absolutely does not give formulas
posted with Yomeleba
Takeshi Matsuo, Toshiaki Nakamura Kitaoji Shobo
Rakuten Books
Other commentary articles and recommended books
If you are interested in anything other than this commentary, I will make a link so please do search for necessary articles.

Related article
Thinking method · List of commentary on business skills | Thinking method to make you a brand

What is Abduction? Explain the hypothesis thinking [thinking method and thinking habits]

Observational ability and insight are all steps to acquire “ability to notice” and “ability to see”

What is problem solving? Explain all processes of problem solving and how to train problem solving skills

Also, in the following article, I will introduce recommended books to those who want to learn more. I would be pleased if you could see it.

Recommended books related to business skill management
Business books 100 volumes | Recommended books by business category of 17 | from primer to masterpiece

Logical thinking book | Recommended books by purpose 14 books | reading method to make you a brand

Book on problem solving | Recommended books by category 21 volumes | Reading law that makes you brand

Management book | Suggested books by purpose 21 volumes | Reading law that makes you brand

Recommended book related to branding · marketing
Marketing book | Recommended books by category 42 books | reading method to make you a brand

Branding book | Recommended books by category 21 books | reading method to make you a brand

Corporate branding book | Recommended books 4 volumes | Reading law that makes you a brand

To the end

From now on, I will continue to explain the “Thinking Law to make you your brand”.

However, with the busy schedule, this blog will be irregularly updated.

Still, if you feel sympathy with the gist in this blog and want to get some hints, please register this blog as reader registration , Twitter , facebook registration.

When k_bird updates the blog, you will receive notifications.

Brand Valuation by Interbrand

Brand valuation by Interbrand

brand value calculation brand evaluation

Brand valuation by Interbrand

Brand Valuation Consultancy – Brand Valuation (Brand and Logo Value Estimation)

Brand ratings and ratings are conducted annually by companies and institutions around the world.

But among the vast numbers of branding firms (and some of them doing it scientifically and others doing it as an income-generating business), Interbrand has a relatively high reputation.

Since 1988, the company has been continuously evaluating brands and continues to do so.

Interbrand, while striving to apply the precise scientific principles in the pricing of brands, insists that this method of calculation does not exclude brands from the world of space and its results do not merely translate into a rigorous academic report.

For this reason, the philosophy of the brand equity model is as follows:

Brand valuation formula – independent of its structure and design – should eventually account for brand equity in the outputs of a business.

brand value calculation brand evaluation

مشاوره ارزش گذاری برند

What is SWOT analysis ?

What is SWOT analysis and what does it do?

Many branches of knowledge have the keywords that it is impossible to imagine those sciences without those words.

For example, if we extract supply and demand from the economy, there will not be much left of it, despite the massive body of this knowledge.

In the same way, if we take strategy, opportunity, threat, strength, and weakness, we have diminished an important part of the strategy. The four terms commonly referred to as the first letter of their English equivalents, as a SWOT or SWOT matrix:

  1. Opportunity

  2. Threat

  3. Strength

  4. Weakness

The SWOT matrix can be considered as the oldest strategy tool, and the SWOT analysis based on this matrix has become the standard part of most of the books and official references in strategic thinking and strategic thinking.

Although we often have enough familiarity with this tool, we focus on a brief overview of this tool, with the aim of making the subjective image of friends complementary to the SWOT analysis as well as the formation of a common language in this field.

SWOT matrix

The first step in using the SWOT analysis is to list the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, each one individually and accurately. The two terms of strength and weakness refer to the internal state of the business, and opportunities and threats speak of the external environment of the business:

A SWOT matrix to be used later for SWOT analysis. But its framework needs to be changed

Therefore, the following can be examples of strength and weakness in a business (SW):

  • High / Low liquidity
  • Access to or lack of technical and specialized knowledge
  • Owning a strong base among customers
  • A high or low share of human resource costs in the structure of business costs
  • Simple or difficult access to vital resources for businesses
  • Motivated by the high or low labor force
  • High quality or low products
  • Accessor lack of access to a powerful distribution network

By contrast, the following can be examples of opportunities and threats in a business environment (OT):

  • The fluctuation of the rial against the dollar
  • The stability or instability of the laws in the field of the activity of a business
  • The presence or absence of large rivals with state support and subsidies
  • The prevalence or prevalence of the culture of using a business’s products
  • Changes in population pyramid and demographic characteristics of the community
  • Changes in the technological infrastructure of the country
  • Advances in the field of Information Technology
  • Strengthening or weakening the country’s political relationship with other countries
  • If we put the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a slightly higher framework, we will come to this matrix:
  • Sample SWOT matrix completed

SWOT analysis

SWOT matrix should not be confused with SWOT analysis. This matrix is just a way to show the status of a business. But the main goal of listing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats is to look at strategic options for a business. Otherwise, the listing of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, by itself, can not be miraculous and influential.

For this reason, the next step after determining the components of S and W, and O and T is to consider their relationship with each other and their effect on each other:

SWOT analysis

Strategic thinking

Strategic thinking

Strategic Thinking Cognitive Map
Strategic thinking has been considered less than other issues and strategies related to the strategy.

Strategic thinking
Strategic thinking

Usually, when we hear the name of a strategy, issues such as strategic planning, implementation, and implementation of the strategy, or even strategic control, are in our minds, but strategic thinking has a small contribution.

Even many of the books officially introduced as strategic thinking eventually replicated the details of strategic planning.

In addition, given the importance we attach to strategic thinking, we decided to devote an independent chapter to this discussion.

What is the purpose of strategic thinking?

The goal of the lesson is strategic thinking, teaching thinking, and thinking based on the principles of strategy.

Strategic thinking, as its name implies, teaches us a better way of thinking. Help us better see and evaluate our resources and maximize the opportunities that exist in our environment.

What are the lessons for strategic thinking?

Contrary to some of the complementary lessons that are not available without offering the project in the proposed courses, we do not have any limitations on this subject.

However, we believe that studying and familiarizing with the concepts of system thinking and decision making can help in the deeper understanding of this subject.

At the same time, strategic thinking is a prerequisite for a business strategy lesson, and by studying and learning it can understand the concepts of business strategy better and deeper.

Is strategic thinking useful only for executive executives?

Although many examples of strategic thinking lessons from the business environment have been chosen, strategic thinking is not just to improve business management. From this perspective, gender can be considered as a systematic thinking lesson.

System thinking can also be used extensively in the business environment and effective. But we know well that thinking is not systematically limited to business and can affect other aspects of our lives.

Rich Horwath, whose books are also one of the sources of a strategic supplementary lesson, defines an interesting story.

“Do you see strategic thinking and see yourself as a strategic thinker?”

He asked participants in seminars and seminars.

Interestingly, the response pattern of the respondent is almost always the same.

Senior managers say confidently: Yes! Certainly! Of course!

Intermediate executives shake their heads a little bit, and somehow they confirm them to a certain degree.

Those at the bottom of the organization usually silence this question.

It seems that we were somewhere in the corner of our minds that someone in high standing should be a strategic thinker and someone who has no strategic thinking ability (or not in a position that does not need this ability) )

Strategic thinking is not for managers and is required at all levels of the organization

What is the relationship between strategic thinking and strategic planning?
If you expect a clear and precise answer to this question, unfortunately, your expectation will not be met.

Although writers and thinkers in the field of management simply and repeatedly use the two words of strategic planning and strategic thinking, there is no agreement on the difference between the two and the relationship between the two concepts.

The definition and attribute of strategic thinking vary from source to source.

If you look at the world of books and articles and top masters in this field, you will find four different answers (and even contradictions) for this question.

Prerequisite for Strategic Thinking for Strategic Planning

People like Henry Mintzberg believe that strategic thinking and strategic planning are two different ways of thinking, one of them (strategic thinking) is another prerequisite (strategic planning). In other words, we first understand and understand the strategic thinking of space, and then, relying on strategic planning, we find out what we have learned and operational.

The separation of strategy in thinking and planning is not beneficial

The second group includes people like Michael Porter who argue that strategic thinking is an analytical and fully-designed approach. When you see someone like Porter, you realize that the third concept is used instead of strategic thinking and strategic planning, which is strategic analysis. Michael Porter examines the strategy in two sections:

Diagnosing and analyzing the industry and its current and future status
Choose the position you want (or can) with your business in the industry

برنامه ریزی استراتژیک

What is a brand?

What is a brand?

Brand and branding definition and brand-related terms
✔ Brand and branding
Do you need to start the first brand and branding course with brand definition and glossary by explaining brand-related words?

It is usually assumed that the # glossary is the last part of a textbook. In classrooms, words are usually gradually defined throughout the classroom.

The main reason for brand and branding starts with the brand definition and other related terms is the plurality of views and differences in branding and branding.

Everyone, according to his or her day, has adjusted and changed the brand definition and branding according to his or her needs, depending on his or her background! For this reason, we have to start the discussion with word definitions before starting a more specialized course, with the goal of forming a common language brand and branding.

What you see here is merely general and general definitions to reduce the likelihood of misunderstandings and misunderstandings from the basic concepts, and each of these concepts will be further examined in future lessons.

Different schools in the brand definition
The brand has seen a lot of changes over the last few years.

Usually, the way a brand is defined depends on who has defined it and what perspective it looks at.

Tilde Hedging and colleagues explain in their brand management book that, by reviewing more than 300 articles in the Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Marketing Research, Harvard Business Review and the European Journal of Marketing, they have been able to look at at least seven different views on branding and brand analysis. Detect:

Economic Look to Brand Definition and Branding Style

This is the look that accountants and financial managers have for the brand. The brand is part of the organization’s intangible assets, which appears on the balance sheet, and the time of pricing the business is taken into consideration.

Identity look at Brand Definition and Branding Style

From this perspective, the brand forms part of the whole organization’s identity. Therefore, an organization strives to create and develop a brand corresponding to that identity based on its definition of identity.

Brand look and branding from a consumer perspective

In this view, brand awareness addresses the issue of what consumers are seeing and hearing about brand-related symptoms.

Branding and branding in the eyes of # personality

If we assume that a brand is like a human being and that it has all the characteristics of a human being, how can a personality be attributed to that brand?

Or let’s say in another way: if people look at our brand as a human being, is it appropriate to see and know what kind of person it is?

Human characters are # introverted. Extrovert. Creative and risk-taking. Conservative and imitative. Happy and alive Both are dead and dead. Wild and immortal. Function and quiet are both. We can apply any attribute that we attribute to a person as a brand.

Looking at the brand from the point of view of relationship and relationship management

This kind of attitude is another common form of brand look and branding.

All those discussions that we hear and read in the context of human relationships can also be raised about a customer relationship with a brand.

We humans look at some kind of relationship. To some others in a permanent form. In some relationships, we have a patron, and we complain in other relationships and seek revenge. All of this gender is also manifested in the relationship of human beings with brands.

Brand look and branding as a recipe for interactions and social status

This is another form of brand look.

Sometimes a successful manager feels that his auto must be brand-specific. His car brand can only be one of three or four main brands in the country. His clothing brand should be selected from among the most expensive or luxurious brands in the world.

Many of the world’s luxury brands, some of which have been identified and discussed in # business stories in the MBA, have become virtually part of the managerial consumption culture.

Naturally, this form of branding, as in all other forms, can ultimately bring long-term economic benefits to brand owners.

But naturally, brands can take advantage of their own brand, not just as a means of selling more, but as a means of building a more powerful collective identity.

Brand look and branding

This form of sight is a method that is usually raised at the macro level and is a matter for government officials.

When we look at culture from a large perspective, brand and brands are beyond the simple and basic equations of business and help to attribute certain attributes and attributes to a culture at a macro level.

Today, Switzerland’s name reminds many of us of the finesse. Perhaps it was a Swiss watch, with its identity and precision, which was called Swiss, but today is the process of inversion formed:

This is the name of Switzerland that gives credit for hours.


What is Brand Management | Nine Elements Essential for Brand Management

Brand management

“Brand management” is often defined as follows when searching on Google.

Brand management

is the ongoing activity to increase brand equity.

  • Brand management is an activity that constantly cycles the improvement cycle in order to raise the value of the brand owned by the company itself, as well as the value of the company as a whole
  • Brand management is a management method that comprehensively manages brands in favorable conditions for companies

However, if you look at these definitions, do you see clear images of what “brand management” is “what” “what to do”?

Humans can not do things that can not be imaged. Especially brand management is an effort involving many team members, but it is self-explanatory that brand management does not work unless we have common recognition that “what” and “what to do” with brand management.

The author of this blog k_bird defines “branding” as follows so that it can be used effectively in practice.

What is branding?

  • A brand is a thing or service that accompanies “empathy” with “a unique role” for consumers.
  • Branding refers to efforts to create identity and empathy as “as much as possible” and “as strong as possible”.
  • The merit is a long-selling brand based on “nominated purchase” that goes beyond “impulse buying request.”

And, based on the above definition of “branding”, “definition of brand management” is as follows.

What is brand management?

  • What: Business activities that create empathy for the brand
  • What to do: to properly manage so that its effect is maximized

And in order to make it easier to make this definition practical, it is organized into the following nine elements.

  1. To properly manage the corporate brand
  2. Appropriate management of multiple brand portfolios
  3. To properly manage organizations and human resources that carry out brand management
  4. To properly manage the design policy of the brand
  5. Proper management of branding (process) and results
  6. To properly manage response to market changes
  7. To properly manage the brand market price
  8. Make the best use of brand equity (assets)
  9. To properly manage intellectual property rights of brands

Let’s explain in order below. If you would like to know more detailed brand management method, please visit each landing page


If when your mother comes back from the supermarket – loaded with shopping bags – instead of helping her “steal” the receipt and think, “Will he do his best?” or “Is there a way to reduce these costs?”, then you could be a perfect business management consultant. What is it about? Of one of the professional figures most sought after by companies so much to be considered “unobtainable”, at least according to what emerges from the latest survey Excelsior-Unioncamere on the needs of companies. But how do you become a business management consultant? Skuola.net explains it with Virgin Radio in the weekly appointment with the “unobtainable” professions within the Buongiorno Dr Feelgood broadcast.

– To become a business management consultant, after middle school, it would be preferable to register with the technical and technological institute for administration, finance and marketing. In such a way that you can acquire, albeit in a generic way, the basics of the job you dream of doing. After high school, however, the choice is mandatory because to practice this profession you must achieve a degree in economic disciplines, choosing from all courses in economics and business or management engineering, but it would be better in business economics because it gives you the necessary preparation for then, tomorrow, being able to run a business. Finally, after graduation, it is preferable that you do a master’s degree. To expand your knowledge and also the possibilities of finding a job.
– But what exactly does a business management consultant do? As it is easy to guess from the name, it deals with providing advice to companies (but also banks), in particular, manages the business plans to increase competitiveness on the market and, above all, analyzes the budget costs to ensure that waste is reduced to a minimum. In any case, specifically, his duties according to Isfol data are:
-Study strategies to improve the company’s performance
-Drawing industrial accounting systems
– To advise investments
– Make financial planning and management control
– Make economic and financial projects for companies
– Provide economic advice
– Develop organizational proposals for the marketing area of companies
– Formulate proposals to improve process efficiency
-Analyze data or information of an economic nature
– According to the online blogs in the sector, a recent graduate business management consultant earns, on average, between 2200 and 2500 euros gross per month. While it comes to almost 4000 euros gross per month for those with more experience. However, from what emerges from the network, there are many business consultants who work as freelancers. And in this case, of course, the monthly salary is not calculable because it depends on both the amount of work and the type of customer.
– To become a perfect business management consultant there are personal characteristics that facilitate career advancement. It is fundamental to know how to communicate with others, whether they are colleagues or potential clients. Very important ability, this, to expose their ideas. Another required capacity is an excellent knowledge of the computer. Basic tool for those who dream of doing this job. Finally, it is important to be resourceful, innovative, confident in their abilities and, above all, with strong “problem solving” skills.

طرح توجیهی

Business, management and management consultancy

Business, management and management consultancy
The area of management control, particularly felt by medium-sized customers, is the result of many decades of experience in the sector.

The exploitation of these experiences has allowed us to jointly develop, over time, professional and operational skills in favor of customers in the field of management control such as:


Strategic planning: support to management in defining business objectives, identifying the medium-long term mission of the company and subsequently translating the latter into operational plans. The study and definition of company strategies, support in strategic choices and analysis of competition and coalition policies are part of this activity.
Elaboration of business plans: support in the elaboration and analysis of the business plan, as a tool for medium-long term planning
Directional accounting: definition and design of management accounting systems based on the identification of activities or management areas in which value, selection and installation of Business Intelligence systems, project management consultancy are generated

Strategic control: aid to the company in the design of the control system for the analysis of its competitive positioning: balance analysis, performance indicators and balanced scorecard
Budget and reporting: assistance in defining budgeting and reporting procedures, drafting infra-annual reports, analysis of variances and support of management decisions
Analytical accounting: consultancy in the field of analytical accounting, support and assistance in the definition of internal procedures, Activity Based Costing and Activity Based Management Accounting

Financial Planning: simulations and economic-financial projections to allow the analysis of possible future dynamics
Treasury management: short, medium and long term cash simulation, liaison with banks, cash flow analysis
Evaluation of investments: evaluation of the return on the investment projected in future years

Management of processes and procedures: analysis of company organizational structures, comparison with reference models, assistance, definition, processing and verification of internal procedures
Tasks: qualitative and quantitative analysis and planning of the workforce, definition of tasks and lines of responsibility

goal analysis
qualitative analysis of existing information and computer systems
assistance, together with IT technicians, in choosing the most suitable solution, both hardware and software
assistance in defining supply contracts
hiring the works management or coaching the internal manager
support in the phases of analysis and construction of the prototype
support during the start-up phase and subsequent system optimization

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