What is Brand Japan

It is the largest brand value evaluation survey in Japan, with more than 50,000 consumers and business people evaluating a total of 1,500 brands of companies, products, and services. It is useful for verifying the results of marketing practiced in the past, setting future targets. We will utilize survey result data to support brand building.

brand branding
brand branding

Brand · Japan 5 points

People in charge of PR, management planning, marketing, must work together. 
It is a tool to visualize the strong image of brand strategy planning, “image of a brand” in the head.

“Brand Japan” will be celebrating the 18 th year this year with a survey that consumers and business people evaluate the value of the 1,500 brands by over 50,000 consumers and business people. On the report and the data CD-ROM, you can analyze with competitors and analyze with aging from the brand name and company name, and you will see the characteristics of your own brand and the direction you want to aim. In addition, objectivity and reliability as indicators are high, cost performance is also outstanding and has received high popularity.

We are cooperating with authoritative people and investigating with a highly objective system of committees.

At Brand Japan, we invite people active in the world of brand theory, marketing analysis and statistics to invite accurate aggregation and analysis from a fair and objective point of view, and invite people from the Brand Japan Planning Committee “From the first survey.

We survey by our own method and visualize brand evaluation that Japanese society holds.

Nominated brand 1,500 was elected in September ‘Brand Recruitment Survey’, and in November ‘s Survey, it was divided into Consumer Market (BtoC) Edition and Business Market (BtoB) Edition, with more than 50,000 consumers and businesses People appreciated the brand. The survey results are published as a report in March of the following year.

Three steps of brand value evaluation

 

1. Brand recall survey _ September Previous
election of brands memorized in people
At Brand Japan, we conduct a “brand recall survey” as a preliminary survey for nominations, aiming to make brands in the head of people visible. This is a pure recall type, a memory that has five fields in each field freely written for brands with a positive image of “evaluating” or “liking” about the 12 fields in the table below It is a search type investigation.
2. Brand · Japan Survey _ 
Intuitively investigate various images for each 1,500 brands in November / Yes / No
This survey will be conducted on 1,500 nominated brands determined as candidates for the top of the previous survey and the top of “recall survey” as candidates. In this way, by examining the brands memorized in many people, we are improving the accuracy and value of the survey and appropriately evaluating and measuring the “now” of brands circulating in Japan. In the Consumer Market (BtoC) compilation, a total of 1,000 brands of company name and product/service name are taken from the consumer’s point of view, and in the business market (BtoB) edition, only the company name 500 brand business activities are viewed from a business person ‘ I investigate each. It is the largest brand value evaluation survey in Japan, with more than 50,000 people surveyed, with 1,500 brands nominated. In addition to checking the balance and image of the brand portfolio mutually, it is also effective for comparing with competition and discussing collaboration among companies.
3. Calculate scores, issue reports _ 
Diagnose strengths and weaknesses using original analysis method in March
Covariance structure analysis (SEM) is adopted as an evaluation method. Analyzed with a proprietary model based on the hypothesis with 4 latent variables (factors) in 4 BtoC edition and 5 B to B editing. As latent variables, the features of brands are reasonably summarized, so if you express them with a radar chart, you can see the difference in image pattern by brand at a glance. The hypothesis is verified every time, but as a result, it is a robust model that does not fluctuate for 18 years. In addition to being able to easily compare similarities and discrimination with all brands, we are highly appraised by corporate brand staff and researchers and are adopted numerously because we can confirm brand growth and change in time series.
  • Calculate and classify and visualize the four-factor scores and brand comprehensive power of “Friendly” “Convenient” “Outstanding” “Innovative” from the image that consumers have.

  • Five-factor scores of “foresight power” “human resources capability” “creditworthiness” “affinity” “vitality” from the image of the business person, classification and visualization by calculating the brand comprehensive power.

Radar Chart, Competition Analysis, Free Opinion …… The 
report includes CD-ROM that can be analyzed speedily!

In the case of full specification (more than the advanced version) on the data CD-ROM, “individual analysis sheet” “competitive analysis sheet” “analysis sheet based on awareness / user (individual · competition)” “free opinion: list” Freedom opinion: frequent word ranking “” Ranking table: overall result / result by attribute “” radar chart “” environmental consideration (BtoC edition) evaluation ranking / social contribution (BtoB editing) evaluation ranking “” royalty rating ranking ” Includes analysis function. You can easily print out and use it as meeting material.

You can choose from three versions of the report according to your budget.

There are three versions of “Brand Japan” report set: “Advanced”, “Standard”, “Light”. Commonly included in all versions is “report (commentary + data book)” “data CD – ROM”, but the contents of the data CD – ROM differs with “Advanced”, “Standard”, “Light”. In addition to these, custom analysis can be optionally added to “Advanced” and “Standard”.   1  2  3  4  5

A fashionable person knows! What is your brand to wear in your 30s?

“I’m about to have a good age and I want to change the shop where I buy clothes.” “I can not wear any more brands that were so crazy about it …”. As it seems, “fashionable transition” apparently comes around the age of 30. In fact, in the last few years, the fashion industry has gone alright. From the familiar select shop to the new brand of expectation, adult brand suitable for the thirties is increasing dramatically. 

A fashionable person  brand
So, I’d like to introduce “new classic” that we would like to recommend to the Alasar generation who is entering a fashionable transition period. This time pick up the Steady brand by the taste that I want to challenge!

If you want to challenge the vintage MIX style …

Besides being simple, not only is it a casual fine casual with a familiar stature drifting, vintage-like MIX Corde will be granted. As soon as you arrive, introduce 2 brands promising fashion!

The first is Ans Clear. Since its debut last fall, it has been handled one after another at popular select shops, and it quickly grew to popular brands. Not only the goodness of tailoring but also the philosophy of free playing dice as a matter of course, I propose a style that MIX all the tastes.

Different old clothes T-shirt every single design, all Harley Da Vittorio
purchase the design of Doson, embroidery of the brand name to back style
that has been subjected to.
Jacket ¥ 89,000, vintage T-shirt ¥ 23,000, corduroy pants ¥ 36,000 / all Anse Clear, wrapped scarf ¥ 25,000 (reference price) / Altea, West pouch ¥ 44,000 (reference price) / Amboise, pumps ¥ 48,000 / perico All Aman) Earrings ¥ 12,000 / Gas Bijou (gas vision Aoyama)

Third magazine I’d like to introduce next . It
is a select shop that starts from 9/1 this autumn, with main target of adult women in their 30s and 40s . We propose daily arrival with original, imported and old clothes, and attention is also gaining attention also in a new form based on showrooms store.

Vintage denim crispy feeling used, drifts the style of fashionista. T – shirt also realistic old clothes MIX!  برند  Vintage rock T-shirt ¥ 18,000, vintage denim jacket ¥ 28,000 / Together Third Magazine Used, Ribnit Cami Dress ¥ 34,000 / Third Magazine, Hat ¥ 52,000 / Albatos Swanpoll, Bag ¥ 29,000 / Ensala (All Third Magazine) Earring ¥ 14,900 / Gas Bijou (Gas bijou Aoyama) pumps / stylist personal items

If you want to try fashionable Ass Leisure Corde …

The second one is an ast strut . Brand was born in 2014 from United Arrows, it seems to mean “street” in old English. We continue to propose high quality clothes for adult women who can not choose to choose things by their own values without being swayed by trends.

For the sporty jersey-like line pants, keep the feeling beautiful together with a good girls check pattern atmosphere with the atmosphere in reverse!
Blouse ¥ 21,000 / Together Ast strut, ring ¥ 11,000 / Philippe Audi Veil (all Ast strut Shinjuku store) Belt bag ¥ 28,000 / Potiol (United Arrows Ginza store) Short boots ¥ 39,000 / Lake Nen (United Arrows Roppongi Hills store ) And the third one is apartment dormuem class . “French apartment” is a concept. As a select shop enjoyed by adults who know the real thing, we have timeless high casual lineup.

A bespoke parka bought out is a brand’s hard work. You can direct a slightly sporty mood by just waving a feminine item. Adult attractive leisure tips to match the clothes cleanly!
Parka (bespoke) ¥ 28,000 / apatomon, dress ¥ 62,000 / Icons, bag ¥ 110,000 / Tomazini, slipper loafers ¥ 28,000 / caminando (all apartment Aoyama shop) sunglasses ¥ 55,000 / Ivan 7285 (Ivan 7285 Tokyo)If you want to wear a boyish maturely …A thirtieth gathering (masters) in mens-like clothes such as trainers and chino materials, oversized shirts, proposition to keep goods and femininity. If you try such a boys-like style, this season is paying attention to these two brands.

<Right> Journal Standard Lessage . Expanded on the basis of standard items for adult women who enjoy fashion, we handle a lot of mens-like items as well. It is a brand that is good at style that Mixed American and European taste.

Before entering skirts and casual material was slit, port talk about the woman whiff in the toes
and in-Ted heel, casual 30 that incorporates the Iroppo of the detail
ally of generations. Sweat Tops ¥ 16,000 / Anse Clear, Shirt ¥ 13,000 / Journal Standard Lessage, Skirt ¥ 25,000 / Jane Smith, Earring ¥ 25,000 / Risie Fortunato, West Pouch ¥ 50,000 / Maison Bowane, Pumps ¥ 44,000 / Nebroni (All Journal Standard Lessage Aoyama store)

<Left> H. Beauty & Youth .
We propose high-end casual with our own product line that casts a single stone in a standardized select shop . We handle a wide range of price ranges from low to high, and have high sensitivity items. Even at the department store, the brand is characteristic of the arrangement of goods with no gender.

Keeping the femininity of a young boy with a sense of comfort of a shirt worn loose. Over shirt ¥ 52,000, slitted pants ¥ 20,000 / Together H. Beauty & Youth, Pierce ¥ 7,000 / Enry Parker, Shoes ¥ 72,000 / Robert CREE (all H Beauty & Youth) Cap ¥ 3,800 / New Era x Beauty & Youth, Bag ¥ 8,250 / Beauty & Youth (Together Beauty & Youth UNITED ARROWS Shibuya Koen Street Store) INNER / STYLIST ORIGINAL Spot

Is it a style you’d like to try this autumn? If you have an interesting style, let’s mark it from these remarkable shops. 12345

What is motivation

motivation

This time I will explain motivation.

By reading this sentence, you can understand what motivation is and then deepen your understanding of the theory system of motivation and the contents of the main theory.

motivation
motivation

First of all, let’s think about what motivation is.

Looking at the members of the corporate organization, people who are interested in daily work, those who high performance and achievements are raising, and those who are depressed and working on the work and results are Some people are falling into a vicious circle without rising.

It is the concept of motivation to unravel such a state.

Motivation of human beings in organizations plays a big role.

In order to do the work, “ability” to do the work is necessary, but accordingly there is no strong “power” by “motivation” “motivation” “motivation”, the work performance required for that work We can not give results.

The high achievement and achievement (performance) in work is born by the interaction of “ability” and “motivation”.

motivation

Even those with high capabilities will need motivation to continuously demonstrate their abilities in order to demonstrate their abilities and maintain high performance standards.

Motivation is a variable factor that varies depending on the circumstances and circumstances.

In order to maintain high performance and achievements at work, we need to keep motivation stable and continue.

In order to activate motivation, it is important to clearly show some direction such as purpose and goal first.

The strong power and action energy (= motivation) towards that goal and purpose are activated by “expectation” and “desire”.

Motivation is the ability to continue actions until we achieve our goals and objectives .

How should an organization’s leader handle when a large gap occurs between goals and objectives and the current situation?

It is also important for the leaders of the organization to support the achievement of the purpose and goals for the members who are constantly striving to achieve the goals and objectives in order to maintain the motivation of the members It is an element.

In the issue of motivation to work in an organization, management actions for motivating conscious actions to members who are trying to contribute toward the achievement of goals and objectives are important.

As a way to raise motivation and motivation for such work, there is provision of “compensation” in a broad sense.

This compensation includes internal compensation and external compensation . IranMCT

Internal rewards can be said to be ” remuneration that the work itself brings “, such as the sense of accomplishment of work or the self-growth by work .

External compensation includes salary, promotion, human relations and organizational philosophy .

By clarifying the remuneration for the outcome of these jobs, we will maintain motivation for the work of the members.

【Content theory and process theory】
Next, let’s organize the motivation theory systematically.

The motivation theory is based on the content theory focusing on the motivation of “what motivates people to motivate” and the process theory focusing on the motivation process of “how people can motivate” 2 It is classified as a type.

motivation

[Content theory] In
content theory, we look at the relationship of what factors influence the outcomes obtained as a result of action.

In the process theory, we aim to clarify how the willingness of organization members will occur, with more emphasis on cognitive and rational aspects of human behavior.

As a representative theory of content theory, there are Maslow ‘s desire 5 stage theory and Hersburg’ s motivation / hygiene theory, which I covered in ‘Transition of Organizational Behavior Theory’ .

Maslow ‘s desire 5 step theory, human desire can be divided into five stages from low to high order, act as if higher desires are satisfied when low desire is satisfied That is the theory.

The motivation / hygiene theory of Hersburg is that there are “satisfaction” and “unsatisfactory” for human behavioral factors and those based on “satisfaction” are motivators for the next action, but those due to “unsatisfactory” Although improving the situation does not become a motivation factor, it is a theory that if it leaves it it becomes a hindrance to behavior.

History of organizational behavior theory

behavior theory

this presentation, I will explain how the organizational behavior theory has followed the transition.

By reading this sentence, you can understand the overview of representative assertions such as the flow of change in organizational behavior theory and Maslow ‘s desire for 5 stages.

behavior theory
behavior theory

First let’s look at the flow of change in organizational behavior theory.

The early (1910s) organizational behavior theory is based on the idea of ” economic person model ” that people act based on economic rationality , and “scientific management method” and “X theory” “SR Theory “has been developed.

After that, after the “Hawthorne experiment”, in the 1930s, the idea that people’s behavior is not based only on economic rationality came out, and the ” social man model ” was devised.

As a management method based on the idea of this social worker model, “SOR research” and “human relations theory” were devised.

In the 1950’s, ” Self-realization model ” was devised which puts value on efforts to achieve self goals, and as a management method based on this concept, “Y theory” “MH theory” “Participative management” can be mentioned.

After that, in the 1980s, the idea of ” complicated person model ” based on the diversity of people making up the organization appeared and management methods such as “condition conformity theory”, “individual management”, “spirit of investigation” A way of thinking was born.

History of organizational behavior theory

The major turning points of these organizational behavioral theories are said to be in the “Hawthorne experiment” conducted at the Western Electric Company in the US in the latter half of the 1920s and early 1930s.

The Hawthorn experiment was an experiment conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical environment of the work site and the work efficiency of the workers and the relation between the lighting brightness and work efficiency was investigated.

As the initial expectation of the experiment, it was said that productivity will increase if the lighting is made brighter, and productivity will decrease if it is darkened.

However, as a result of the experiment, when the lighting was made brighter, productivity improvement was certainly seen, but even if the lighting was darkened, no decrease in productivity was seen.

This is believed to be the reason why the workers who participated in the experiment raised work efficiency by being aware that “we are participating in global experiments”.

Also in this Hawthorne experiment, Mayo of Harvard University reported that there were unofficial organizations within the group as stipulated in “logic of efficiency” and that fellow consciousness in informal organizations and norms within groups influenced work efficiency We found out what to give and developed the idea of human relations theory.

As a method of management before this Hawthorne experiment was carried out, the scientific management method advocated by Frederic Taylor was the focus, but since this experiment, the theory based on human relations theory has been the main focus.

The significance of the Hawthorne experiment is said to have significance in proving that corporate management does not go well by just scientific management law that gives priority to work efficiency and ignoring the human aspect of workers.

Let me introduce three representative theories on the premise of the idea of human relations theory.

① Maslow’s desire for 5 stages

② McGregor’s X theory · Y theory

③ Motivation and sanitation theory of Hersburg

Let’s see each in detail.

① desire 5 stage theory of Maslow
in the desire 5 stage theory, the human desire – in order from the low-dimensional, ” physiological needs “, ” safety desire ,” ” cognitive evaluation desire ,” “self-dignity desire ,” ” self-realization desire of” It is divided into 5 stages.

In this desire 5 stage theory, it is thought that if a low dimensional desire is satisfied, a person acts to satisfy even higher level desire.

Physiological desire : desire for food, clothing, shelter

Necessity to secure safety : desire to protect from risks and dangers by belonging to a group

Cognitive appetite for appreciation : desire to be evaluated by others

Desire for self-esteem : desire to be respected by others

Self-realization desire : desire to realize the self-existential significance

By utilizing this desire 5 stage theory, it is possible to judge whether the incentive presented by the organization is attractive to workers and whether it matches the desires of most people constituting the organization It can be considered.

History of organizational behavior theory

② McGregor’s X theory and Y theory
This X theory and Y theory is based on the fact that Douglas McGregor gives two opposed ideas to human beings as “X theory of command control by an exercise of authority” and “Y theory of integration and self-control” We propose it as.

The idea of X theory and Y theory is similar to the idea of “sexual theory” “sexual evil”.Business management consultant in Tehran, Iran

In the theory of X, taking the idea of sexual theory, it is effective to take administrative oversight by order and compulsion, taking human beings as creatures who want to be lazy by nature, they do not want to take responsibility and leave their jobs when they are left alone It was made.

On the other hand, in the Y theory, we take the idea of sexual theory and think that “human beings are the living creatures who intend to work in their own way, acting themselves to achieve self-realization, progressing and solving problems”, and labor voluntary It is said that management that respects gender is effective.

The X theory is classified as a human behavioral model having many desires of low dimension and the Y theory is classified into a human behavioral model having many desires of high dimension respectively and we are preaching the superiority of management based on the Y theory.

History of organizational behavior theory

③ motivation-hygiene theory of Hazubagu
in the motivation-hygiene theory, there are factors that lead to dissatisfaction and factors that lead to satisfaction for the work, it referred to as a factor motivating the former, called the hygiene factor of the latter.

Motivation factors include job achievement and expansion of responsibility, ability improvement and self-growth, etc. The hygiene factors include company policies and management methods, working environment and working conditions (money, time, status) etc. there is.

In general, even if measures are taken against sanitary factors that are the cause of unsatisfactory, it is said that it merely resolves the dissatisfaction of workers and it will not lead to an increase in satisfaction or motivation for work.

As described above, the research on the organizational behavior theory is a field that studies the influence of the behavior of people and groups within an organization on productivity and performance, so it is important for those who work within a company organization, For anyone in the position, knowledge about this organizational behavior theory is essential to everyone.

In utilizing these theories and thinking in actual business, it is not a thing that can be utilized individually, but it will be more likely to utilize a combination of multiple theories depending on circumstances and partner.

We will not only grasp the content and way of thinking, such as Maslow’s desire for five stage philosophy, Hersburg’s motivation and hygiene theory, but also understand it in conjunction with how to catch behaviors of people in the background (human model) Let’s see.

 

Evaluation of brand value – Calculate Your Brand’s Value

The opinion that monetary evaluation needs require the following grounds.

  • It is subject to management only when expressed in amount.
  • It is the basis for collecting the company usage fee.
  • There is a strong impact on top management.

However, these grounds are not always convincing. For example, a motivation of employees may be mentioned as being subject to management even if it is not expressed as an amount.

Rather, it is important what kind of suggestion is given to the management of the company assumptions used in the calculation process.

Brand value evaluation model of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (reference) Outline

The brand value evaluation model of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is the following model.

  • Usage data is only objective financial data centered on published financial statements
    • It is judged that evaluating the brand financially with a marketing approach that indexes qualitative factors such as awareness indexes lacks the reliability of measurement
  • Evaluate the brand value on a consolidated basis
    • Calculate all brand values within the corporate group based on consolidated financial statements
    • We do not separate the value of the corporate brand from the value of the product brand
  • There are three components of brand value
    1. Prestige driver (PD) → price premiumProducts with brand value can be sold with a higher value than non-brand products.
    2. Loyalty Driver (LD) → RoyaltyBy having brand value, customers can be purchased repetitively and continuously.
    3. Expansion driver (ED) → brand expansion powerStatus high brands will enter not only the original industries and markets, but into similar industries, different industries and overseas markets.

Problems of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

Criticism against the model of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is strong, and it seems that there are not many application cases at enterprises at present.

The main problems are as follows, but it is considered that the fundamental cause of these problems is a precondition that it calculates only by the numerical value recorded in the financial statements.

  • PD
    • I doubt the assumption that advertising costs and brand values are proportional
    • I assert that we are evaluating the price premium, but the formula evaluates the cost rate
  • LD
    • Stability of cost of sales and customer loyalty are completely different things
  • ED
    • It is impossible to make assumption that the ratio of overseas sales and sales ratio other than main business are proportional to brand power

Our approach
We will grasp the value of the brand from both the value expressed in the amount of money and the value not necessarily expressed in the amount.
Evaluate each stakeholder, and grasp the relative position with other companies.
Evaluation of brand value, our approach
Expected results
You can understand the major drivers that influence brand value.
Based on mutual relationship among major drivers, we can guide priority of measures.

تعیین ارزش وب‌ سایت

 

CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERATION / Evaluation criteria
For brands originating in the globe that are developed in Japan, we clarify their brand values and extract and evaluate brands that satisfy the following criteria with the aim of comparing their positions with “global common scale”.

· Being a brand from Japan: To be a corporate and business brand created by Japanese companies

· Various financial information has been announced: It is listed on the market as of October 31, 2017, and it is a company that can obtain forecasts by analysts

· In “Japan’s Best Global Brands”, in fiscal 2016 actual results, the overseas sales ratio of the brand-bearing business is 30% or more (less than 30% in “Japan’s Best Domestic Brands”, ranked “Best Global Brands 2017” In brand adopts the brand value of 2017))

· What is generally recognized globally

METHODOLOGY / Evaluation method
The brand value evaluation method of Inter brand is an evaluation of the brand value from the viewpoint of financial strength, the influence that brand has on purchasing decision making, and the firmness of future profits by brand. Just as securities analysts analyze and evaluate the value of the business, we analyze and evaluate the value of the brand based on the viewpoint of “How much profit is expected to be raised in the future”. It has been certified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ISO 10668 as a global standard for brand monetary value measurement, and is evaluated by the following three analyzes.

1. Financial Analysis

Forecast of the future profits generated by companies
First of all, we will forecast the current and future revenues of the brand-bearing business. Then we subtract the operating cost, taxes, capital cost according to invested capital from that sales, and calculate the future economic benefit. This analysis is based on published corporate information, and future forecast is based on analyst’s performance forecast (※).

* The forecasts of the analysts of this evaluation are based on future forecasts by analysts acquired from IFIS consensus data https://www.ifis.co.jp/ . Regarding future projections, we adopt those as of November 20, 2017.

2. Role analysis of the brand

Extract contribution of brand out of profit
Analyze the extent to which the brand influences the purchasing decision of the customer in order to extract the profit brought by the brand out of the future economic interest calculated by the financial analysis. In this evaluation, we will analyze benchmarks by industry by utilizing a database of brand value evaluation results of over 10,000 conducted by Interbrand for over 30 years on the role brand plays in purchasing trends of consumers. Based on that, we will calculate the score of the contribution of the individual brand’s brand by our own research and analysis.

3. Brand Strength Analysis

Evaluate the future certainty of profit by brand
Brand Strength Analysis is a measure of the ability to evoke client’s needs such as royalty in the market, continued purchase and enclosure of consumers (the ability to maintain future revenues), discounts the profit of the brand and converts it into present value . This evaluation is a systematic method to judge the risk of the brand, and it is evaluated in the following 10 items. Based on internal evaluations such as management and employee brand support and management system, brand position on the market, consumer awareness · favorability, images and other external evaluations, compared with other brands in the same industry 100 It is represented by a score from 0 to 100 which makes a perfect brand.

Next, this brand strength score is converted to a discount rate by Interbrand’s unique calculation method, and the brand value is calculated by discounting the future brand profit at that discount rate. “Brand Role Analysis” and “Brand Strength Analysis” are calculated based on multifaceted evaluations of our consultants using various published reports etc.

 

What is human resources management? About definition, concept, task, case, motivation improvement

In order to achieve business goals, it is important to efficiently manage and utilize the various resources of companies. Among others, human resource management that has been closed up to “human” is an issue that many companies are working on first.

What is human resources management?

here,

  • What is human resource management?
  • Definitions and concepts
  • Task
  • Specific case
  • Relationship with Motivation Improvement

Let’s see about.

Table of Contents [Display]

1. What is human resources management?

Human resource management means “to utilize human resources for achieving management objectives and to design and operate institutions to make use of them” .

A manager manages how to guide team members to achieve organizational and managerial purposes within everyday business activities.

In one word saying “to optimize human resources” is to maximize the knowledge, experience, qualifications and the like of each member in the organization to confront management issues and produce results.

Human resource optimization is an essential keyword to talk about human resource management.

A Definition in Business Administration

Human resource management is a concept born from business administration. How is it defined in business administration?

R · Mondi / Robert · M · No Defining human resource management as “to utilize human resources to achieve organizational objectives”
David · A. · Decenso et al Expression as ‘organizational function on human aspect’
Robert N. Anthony et al. In planning and strategy form, the authority concerning the formulation of company-wide strategic plan, making human resources function as strategy “has a job scope in” high position represented by vice president in charge of human resources “and” authority ” Managers and general employees “to be managed

2. What is “human resources”?

 

Let’s understand that human resources means “words out of the four management resources that point to humans only” .

Human resources are considered to be the most important of the four management resources. Human beings use things, people move money and corporate activities begin only after people make use of information.

Without humans, everything, money and information do not make much sense. The management resources that make up the base of corporate activities are human resources.

 

 2018.07.24What is human resources? Meaning, application method, human resource management, human resource development 
Decline of labor force due to declining birthrate and aging population has become a big social problem, and the importance of human resources in companies is called out nowadays. What kind of things does human resources mean? This time, the meaning of human resources human capital …

① Most basic and important factors

Austrian-born business scholar Peter Drucker says, “Human resources, the whole man is the most productive but the most variable resource among those entrusted to the enterprise, and the great potential capability It is a resource that we have. ”

And it is management’s responsibility to efficiently and effectively utilize the various abilities and possibilities of human resources.

It is the idea that whether management can present measures to motivate human resources depends greatly on management.

② Ask for freedom of behavior and autonomy

Human resources, as an aspect of greatly different character from other management resources,

  • Human resources are “living human”
  • Emotions and intent such as emotions and pleasures

It has an element of. We can not hope to optimize human resources merely by compulsion or restraint from managers and other administrators.

What is important here is the freedom of individual action and the autonomy that controls itself . It can be said that it is interesting only in humans who are not in “Mono, money and information” but also have great possibilities because of difficulties.

③ There is no absolute management method

There is no absolute management method for managing human resources .

New management theory is born in various fields in corporate activities, but the new paradigm does not emerge in human resource management.

It can be said that innovative and decisive management methods for living human beings with feelings and intentions do not easily change .

This will not change for the future. In other words, it tells infinite possibilities in human resource management .

3. Purpose and role of human resource management

 

Next, let’s mention the purpose and role of human resource management. Human resource management can set goals from a total of four.

  1. Increase contribution to achieving strategy by management short-term target  results
  2. Acquire the ability to build management long-term target  strategies and improve their abilities
  3. Individual short-term target  Fair and provide evaluation and treatment based on information disclosure
  4. Personal long-term objective  Support human development and growth through career

It is a big point to think about managing human resources from a complex viewpoint ofmanagement and individuals, short term and long term .

Background / transition

Human resource management was originally popularized in the United States, and then began to be used commonly in Britain and elsewhere.

The prototype is a concept that combines behavioral science such as human capital theory and human relations theory which was born in the 1960s. It was born from reflection of the stalemation of economic support measures to developing countries in the postwar era of the United States.

In addition to the theory that the investment in education and training is effective in order to make the most of knowledge, experience, skills and the like accumulated in humans, the concept of corporate management, that is, the strategy, etc. is added to the theory that human resource management form It was made.

4. Three model concepts of human resource management

 

Human resource management has three model concepts. Let’s briefly introduce each model outline. In order to deepen the understanding of human resource management, it is effective to read and understand model concepts.

  1. Michigan model
  2. Harvard model
  3. High performance HRM (AMO theory )

① Michigan model

As the name suggests, the Michigan model is based on research conducted at the University of Michigan in the 1980s. It is argued that “human resource management should be done with emphasis on consistency with management strategy” .

In this model,

  1. Hiring and selection
  2. Talent evaluation
  3. Human resources development
  4. Compensation

That dropped into the strategic management of the four functions, it will increase the performance in the two wheels of the individual not only the organization ‘s management that.

In addition to closing up human resources, improving compatibility with management aspects such as management strategy, management environment, organizational structure can be said to be a major feature not found in conventional human resource management and human resources management theory.

② Harvard model

The Harvard model is a human resources management model born on the basis of research results conducted at Harvard University in the 1980s. Human resources management area,

  1. The impact of employees
  2. Flow of human resources
  3. Compensation system
  4. Job system

It is defined as consisting of four fields. And human resources management, characteristics of the employees, the labor market, receive a very large impact from such management strategy and “situational factors”, “stakeholders’ interests,” You are those.

Human resource management in the Harvard model aims to “meet the goals of the organization and individuals” as a result of the increase in “cost effectiveness” by improving the “commitment and ability” of the employees .

The big difference with the Michigan model,

  • The extent of the area of human resource management
  • We also focus on the internal psychological state of employees

It is a point.

③ High performance HRM (AMO theory)

High performance HRM is an abbreviation for “Human Resource Management”. High performance There are several theories in HRM, but AMO theory, among other things, can be read from the initials of AMO,

  1. Ability
  2. Motivation
  3. Opportunity

It is a manpower resource management model based on three elements.

We believe that if we can improve three elements of ability, motivation, opportunity, we can enhance superiority in sustainable competition in organization .

High Performance As an effect of HRM, it is more effective than Human Capital such as skill, experience, qualifications and education of individual employees than “aspects of human capital” such as the satisfaction of employees for companies and work and the “trust in the organization” of “employee motivation” I know that it is easy to act on .

④ High performance HRM (PIRK model)

High performance HRM has a PIRK model that is positioned separately from AMO theory. With PIRK theory,

  1. Delegation of power
  2. Sharing information
  3. Fair remuneration (reward)
  4. Knowledge attributed to employees

It is a human resources management model composed of four elements.

By the above four elements, we will raise the fairness (procedural justice perception) and emotional organizational commitment (employee’s organizational commitment) felt by employees.

In other words, because PIRK model increases sense of belonging, it is possible to lower intention of leaving or changing jobs .

⑤ Talent management

Talent management refers to a structure within a company that actively uses talents and talents (talents) to realize management strategies .

Securing and using skilled human resources will have a major impact on the company’s permanent sustainability.

In talent management, we will manage to cultivate talented people who will be involved in the management department, which is the core of the company in the future.

In particular,

  • Adoption
  • Training
  • Arrangement
  • Evaluation
  • treatment
  • Training successor training

We manage all human resource management such as . It can be called human resource management to foster competent leaders who can push things forward to achieve management goals and performance targets .

 

 2018.11.08What is talent management?“Talent management” which became popular in the last few years in the field ofmeaning, purpose and practice method, system selection 
personnel affairs, human resources. It is attracting attention in Japanese companies with the way of thinking born in the United States, but it is not often from the straw about “what kind of efforts are being done” …

5. How do you motivate employees through human resource management?

 

How do you improve your motivation through human resources management? High performance In HRM, “high commitment system” is linked to motivation of employees .

High performance HRM,

  • Adoption
  • Selection
  • education
  • Compensation
  • Job analysis
  • Performance evaluation

, Etc. By implementing measures for these, certain results are born, and the result is deeply linked to the commitment among employees.

The HRM system not only enhances the fairness of the endogenous motivation and decision-making process for employee’s work but also enhances the social exchange theory between the organization and individuals within the organization .

6. Challenges and problems of human resource management

 

Have you understood that human resource management is a management system that greatly contributes to achieving management goals?

However, with regard to the existence of causality, it has not been explained logically by many studies. In cases where it is rare to verify the order of causal relationships rarely, it is rare that proving causality is insufficient while acknowledging correlation .

Regarding the method of measuring causality,

  • There is no agreement on how to measure corporate performance
  • Necessary to analyze across micro and macro

There are such things as there is no measurement method with consensus formation .

① Issues and problems of the Michigan model

The Michigan model is a model in which corporate performance and human resources management act together .

The top priority is corporate strategy and human resource management measures are implemented to achieve that, so if strategy works well and corporate performance improves, the value of human resources will increase according to the degree of contribution.

In this way, because the theory of the company side comes first, the individuals, that is, the problems of human nature and employment security of workers are neglected .

Also,

  • It tends to neglect aspects such as grasping potential of individuals
  • Under such circumstances, personnel selection, compensation decisions, human resource development will be done

It also includes problems such as.

② Issues and problems of Harvard model

The Harvard model is based on a worker’s view that employs employees as social assets. In the company’s long-term management strategy, consistency and harmony with human resource management are said to be indispensable .

However, it is said to have the following problems and problems.

  • From consistency and harmony, tendency to emphasize employees
  • Various types of employment are mixed, employment adjustment is comparatively easy, and the suppression function works against the desires of employees
  • Downplay the existence of trade unions to
  • Reduces the organization of the trade unions, it is neglected by employers and employees each other to exert a force with the cooperation with both become

7. Practical examples of human resource management

 

How is human resource management being practiced within a company? We will introduce practical examples of car manufacturers and electric manufacturers and two companies. Please refer to practical case examples and apply it to other industries as well.

Nissan Motor

At Nissan Motor, we set up a personnel committee in 2000 to undertake talent management .

The Human Resources Committee considers the talent of each company and each region as a common asset, and the headquarters is centrally and centrally manages the rearrangement of talented personnel capable of competence and capacity development from a global perspective.

Regarding personnel who became the target of the next generation leader, we carried out career development plan and leadership training individually, and since 2003 also introduced a career coaching system.

This is a proposal for five people specialized in human resources field to list and foster human resources who will be responsible for the next generation.

We also introduced a new managerial evaluation system that determines diversity that emphasizes diversity and “Nissan Way” and its performance and performance based on the 2005 action guidelines “Nissan Way”.

Besides that, we also incorporate an award program as part of building a  praising culture”. Human resource management is being promoted to support the inner face of employees.

Electronics company

What about electric machine manufacturers conducting overseas business under product-specific business headquarters? This maker implemented human resource management measures in 2005 .

In order to incorporate the utilization of human resources including overseas subsidiaries into the management strategy,

  • Personnel of local employees
  • Public Relations Activity
  • Decision right to procure supplier of raw material parts
  • Determination of inventory and production volume

The delegation of authority such as that was proceeding.

 

 2018.12.13What is Empowerment?Implicationson meaning, importance, ability demonstration, merit, introduction to organization 
Empowerment has meaning such as “giving authority”, “giving confidence”, “doing power” English words. However, it is used in a specific context such as corporate management, welfare for the disabled, human rights …

But,

  • Headquarters must judge from a global perspective
  • The headquarters organization that can not be moved locally is involved
  • We need a long-term vision of management

Problems and tasks have become a pile of problems, securing personnel dispatched from the head office to overseas, and the headquarters and overseas affiliates cooperate to establish a system to recruit, manage and nurture human resources.

In addition, we also reviewed the personnel management rules such as evaluation and treatment between Japan and overseas. While leaving it to the site, we created a management that performs certain governance by the headquarters.

8. Difference from Human Resources Labor Management

 

In a word similar to human resource management, there is the word “personnel labor management”. Perhaps there are people who are accustomed to the terms “personnel labor” and “personnel labor management” rather than human resource management.

Human resources management and personnel labor management are different in meaning. Let’s look at the thought and strategic aspects of human resources labor management.

  1. Thought / premise
  2. Strategic Aspect
  3. Line management
  4. Main management method

① thought / premise

Thought and premise of human resource management Ideology and premise of personnel labor management
Framework of action Sense of mission Norms, customs and practices
Management work for workers Training Monitoring
Contract relationship Goal is to exceed the psychological contract Accurate fulfillment of specified contract contents
Rule Pursue beyond the rules that can be done Clear rules and compliance are important

Personnel labor management differs from human resource management in that norms, practices, rules are emphasized and conflicts are institutionalized .

② Strategic Aspect

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Key relationship Companies and Customers Workers and managers
Initiative Integration fragmentary
Consistency with business plan Become very large Low
Decision making speed Tend to be late

From the strategic aspect of personnel labor management, you will find that it is not located in a position that will affect the strategy itself as much as human resource management .

③ Line management

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Role of line management Always aim for change and innovation Business process centering
Major administrator Administrators of top management, division chiefs, and lines Personnel labor · labor relations expert
Management skills required of them support Negotiation

Human resource management is closely related to management strategy, but you can see that Human Resources Labor Management focuses on coordinating and negotiating between divisions, mainly by the Human Resources Department .

④ Main management method

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Management method It is integrated with the overall goal of the company and it is highly important It is separated from the overall goal of the enterprise and the importance is low
Compensation Performance and synchronization Job evaluation
Organizational situation Harmony on the premise of labor-management cooperation Negotiation on the premise of conflict between labor and management
communication The organization moves with direct, good teamwork Indirect

Personnel labor management can be regarded as completely contrary to human resources management.

9. Difference between human resources management and organizational behaviorism (organizational behavior theory)

 

We examined the difference between human resources management and personnel labor management, but here we will refer to the difference between human resources management and organizational behavior theory (organizational behavior theory). What is the difference between human resources management and organizational behavior studies?

What is organizational behavior?

Both Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior Theory are “mechanisms related to human behavior”, both of which are positioned as management towards the achievement of corporate strategy.

  • Human beings are moved and utilized by creating or modifying institutions and mechanisms such as human resources management evaluation system
  • Organizational Behavior Theory Move organizations and humans by ‘individual efforts’ such as superiors and managers

In other words, organization theory of behavior can be defined as “an internal structure of a company that gives a little or less influence to humans and organizations .”

Common point

The common themes of human resources management and organizational behavior theory are in the main theme that they are aiming for.

Both human resource management and organizational behavior theory, “in order to achieve the goals of the organization and companies, moving the organization and people,” the main theme that has been the target based on the management philosophy and management strategies in a number of companies set is It is.

Although the way to achieve each goal is different , it can be said that the main theme is how to organize and how people should behave in order to achieve and realize it is common to both .

Difference

Human resources management, in order to move people by the structure and institution of companies ,

  • Human resources policy and human resource system construction
  • Organizational structure reform
  • Creation of organizational culture

Take concrete actions such as.

Meanwhile, the theory of organizational behavior is to move the organization by each individual’s effort ,

It is important to recognize them in detail.

Human resource management is driven by the power of enterprises, whereas organization theory of behavior is the big difference between moving both organizations by individual qualities and initiatives.

Marketing strategy development process Part 3

Next, we will select target markets with reference to marketing environment analysis and specified marketing issues.

Specifically, while segmenting the market (segmentation), we will limit (target) the segments that should be approached by concentrating resources.

In other words, is it a task to answer “Who are their customers?”

At this time, if you do not think reflecting the analysis results and issues of the former stage, there is a danger that you will target the wrong market.

If that happens, you will not practice marketing and you will not be able to solve the problem.

In particular, in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises with limited resources, we want to judge as carefully as possible in order not to waste management resources.

Marketing strategy formulation process

<4. Positioning>
Positioning is a measure to be taken to make our company feel attractive in the target market rather than competitors.

In the previous example, it is a strategy to make it possible to respond appropriately to the demand of elderly people who are difficult to move by switching the sale of electrical appliances, which was the basic store visit, to visiting type or delivery type .

Also, if you are close to the area you can expect repeat.

However, no matter how good a service or product is launched, it will be meaningless unless it is recognized by customers.

As a result, you may need to develop a heavy visiting service that outlaws profits at first.

Alternatively, it will be necessary to encourage the community to distribute flyers, implement events, and so on.

In that case as well, we must keep in mind that we are pleased with customers, not corporate-oriented.

<5. Optimization of Marketing Mix> In
order to promote concrete marketing strategy, it is necessary to take various measures.

At the basic tactical stage, you can use frameworks such as 4P (Product, Price, Price, Place, Promotion) .

What kind of products do you handle? What about pricing? What is your distribution channel? Promotion? We will consider each of them separately.

However, not everything can be optimized from the beginning of the plan.

Rather, if you put on-site principles of making changes on a timely basis through practice, you will be able to respond flexibly.

By constantly reflecting customer’s intentions that we could not anticipate, the quality of our services will also improve.

Regarding the promotion method as well, we would like to make decisions as quickly as possible, such as considering other methods if there is no effect.

<6. Formulation of execution plan>
Finally, we will formulate an execution plan based on the policies established by optimization of marketing mix.

At this stage, it is important to discuss and discuss more concrete actions.

In other words, who? How? By when? At how much? We will set the scenario assuming actual scenes.

Of course, it is indispensable to clarify the financial backing.

If the budget and personnel allocation do not go well when it is about to be executed, the plan will become a rice cake drawn in the picture.

Also, you should take care of the human skills and properly in the field.

If you quantify your achievements in a visual form, you can always make orbit corrections and lead to motivation of the staff.

【Summary】
· Marketing is “Analysis”, “Planning”, “Execution”
· Six marketing strategy formulation process
1. Marketing environment analysis
2. Marketing task identification
3. Target market selection
4. Positioning
5. Marketing · Mix
6. Optimize the execution plan
· Know about the company, know the environment, know the customers
· Important · Not only analysis and planning, but also marketing to marketing

CRM (Customer Relationship Management)

CRM (Customer Relationship Management)

customer relationship management (customer relationship marketing)
CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is a management method (or marketing method) that continuously builds relationships with specific customers, thereby improving sales, profits, and corporate value as a result.

Based on the idea of customer lifetime value (LTV), customer selection, etc., we aim to raise customer ‘s satisfaction and acquire and maintain important customers by conducting marketing with the a focus on each target. When implementing CRM, keep the following flow in mind.

① Build customer databases, etc. to gather customer information and grasp / identify cut points of segmentation and customer needs.

② Select and rank customers who are important for their company.

③ was the target customer of needs products and corresponding to the service to focus on providing a customer to win.

④ We will make efforts to maintain that customer, thereby increasing sales.