History of organizational behavior theory

behavior theory

this presentation, I will explain how the organizational behavior theory has followed the transition.

By reading this sentence, you can understand the overview of representative assertions such as the flow of change in organizational behavior theory and Maslow ‘s desire for 5 stages.

behavior theory
behavior theory

First let’s look at the flow of change in organizational behavior theory.

The early (1910s) organizational behavior theory is based on the idea of ” economic person model ” that people act based on economic rationality , and “scientific management method” and “X theory” “SR Theory “has been developed.

After that, after the “Hawthorne experiment”, in the 1930s, the idea that people’s behavior is not based only on economic rationality came out, and the ” social man model ” was devised.

As a management method based on the idea of this social worker model, “SOR research” and “human relations theory” were devised.

In the 1950’s, ” Self-realization model ” was devised which puts value on efforts to achieve self goals, and as a management method based on this concept, “Y theory” “MH theory” “Participative management” can be mentioned.

After that, in the 1980s, the idea of ” complicated person model ” based on the diversity of people making up the organization appeared and management methods such as “condition conformity theory”, “individual management”, “spirit of investigation” A way of thinking was born.

History of organizational behavior theory

The major turning points of these organizational behavioral theories are said to be in the “Hawthorne experiment” conducted at the Western Electric Company in the US in the latter half of the 1920s and early 1930s.

The Hawthorn experiment was an experiment conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical environment of the work site and the work efficiency of the workers and the relation between the lighting brightness and work efficiency was investigated.

As the initial expectation of the experiment, it was said that productivity will increase if the lighting is made brighter, and productivity will decrease if it is darkened.

However, as a result of the experiment, when the lighting was made brighter, productivity improvement was certainly seen, but even if the lighting was darkened, no decrease in productivity was seen.

This is believed to be the reason why the workers who participated in the experiment raised work efficiency by being aware that “we are participating in global experiments”.

Also in this Hawthorne experiment, Mayo of Harvard University reported that there were unofficial organizations within the group as stipulated in “logic of efficiency” and that fellow consciousness in informal organizations and norms within groups influenced work efficiency We found out what to give and developed the idea of human relations theory.

As a method of management before this Hawthorne experiment was carried out, the scientific management method advocated by Frederic Taylor was the focus, but since this experiment, the theory based on human relations theory has been the main focus.

The significance of the Hawthorne experiment is said to have significance in proving that corporate management does not go well by just scientific management law that gives priority to work efficiency and ignoring the human aspect of workers.

Let me introduce three representative theories on the premise of the idea of human relations theory.

① Maslow’s desire for 5 stages

② McGregor’s X theory · Y theory

③ Motivation and sanitation theory of Hersburg

Let’s see each in detail.

① desire 5 stage theory of Maslow
in the desire 5 stage theory, the human desire – in order from the low-dimensional, ” physiological needs “, ” safety desire ,” ” cognitive evaluation desire ,” “self-dignity desire ,” ” self-realization desire of” It is divided into 5 stages.

In this desire 5 stage theory, it is thought that if a low dimensional desire is satisfied, a person acts to satisfy even higher level desire.

Physiological desire : desire for food, clothing, shelter

Necessity to secure safety : desire to protect from risks and dangers by belonging to a group

Cognitive appetite for appreciation : desire to be evaluated by others

Desire for self-esteem : desire to be respected by others

Self-realization desire : desire to realize the self-existential significance

By utilizing this desire 5 stage theory, it is possible to judge whether the incentive presented by the organization is attractive to workers and whether it matches the desires of most people constituting the organization It can be considered.

History of organizational behavior theory

② McGregor’s X theory and Y theory
This X theory and Y theory is based on the fact that Douglas McGregor gives two opposed ideas to human beings as “X theory of command control by an exercise of authority” and “Y theory of integration and self-control” We propose it as.

The idea of X theory and Y theory is similar to the idea of “sexual theory” “sexual evil”.Business management consultant in Tehran, Iran

In the theory of X, taking the idea of sexual theory, it is effective to take administrative oversight by order and compulsion, taking human beings as creatures who want to be lazy by nature, they do not want to take responsibility and leave their jobs when they are left alone It was made.

On the other hand, in the Y theory, we take the idea of sexual theory and think that “human beings are the living creatures who intend to work in their own way, acting themselves to achieve self-realization, progressing and solving problems”, and labor voluntary It is said that management that respects gender is effective.

The X theory is classified as a human behavioral model having many desires of low dimension and the Y theory is classified into a human behavioral model having many desires of high dimension respectively and we are preaching the superiority of management based on the Y theory.

History of organizational behavior theory

③ motivation-hygiene theory of Hazubagu
in the motivation-hygiene theory, there are factors that lead to dissatisfaction and factors that lead to satisfaction for the work, it referred to as a factor motivating the former, called the hygiene factor of the latter.

Motivation factors include job achievement and expansion of responsibility, ability improvement and self-growth, etc. The hygiene factors include company policies and management methods, working environment and working conditions (money, time, status) etc. there is.

In general, even if measures are taken against sanitary factors that are the cause of unsatisfactory, it is said that it merely resolves the dissatisfaction of workers and it will not lead to an increase in satisfaction or motivation for work.

As described above, the research on the organizational behavior theory is a field that studies the influence of the behavior of people and groups within an organization on productivity and performance, so it is important for those who work within a company organization, For anyone in the position, knowledge about this organizational behavior theory is essential to everyone.

In utilizing these theories and thinking in actual business, it is not a thing that can be utilized individually, but it will be more likely to utilize a combination of multiple theories depending on circumstances and partner.

We will not only grasp the content and way of thinking, such as Maslow’s desire for five stage philosophy, Hersburg’s motivation and hygiene theory, but also understand it in conjunction with how to catch behaviors of people in the background (human model) Let’s see.


What is human resources management? About definition, concept, task, case, motivation improvement

In order to achieve business goals, it is important to efficiently manage and utilize the various resources of companies. Among others, human resource management that has been closed up to “human” is an issue that many companies are working on first.

What is human resources management?


  • What is human resource management?
  • Definitions and concepts
  • Task
  • Specific case
  • Relationship with Motivation Improvement

Let’s see about.

Table of Contents [Display]

1. What is human resources management?

Human resource management means “to utilize human resources for achieving management objectives and to design and operate institutions to make use of them” .

A manager manages how to guide team members to achieve organizational and managerial purposes within everyday business activities.

In one word saying “to optimize human resources” is to maximize the knowledge, experience, qualifications and the like of each member in the organization to confront management issues and produce results.

Human resource optimization is an essential keyword to talk about human resource management.

A Definition in Business Administration

Human resource management is a concept born from business administration. How is it defined in business administration?

R · Mondi / Robert · M · No Defining human resource management as “to utilize human resources to achieve organizational objectives”
David · A. · Decenso et al Expression as ‘organizational function on human aspect’
Robert N. Anthony et al. In planning and strategy form, the authority concerning the formulation of company-wide strategic plan, making human resources function as strategy “has a job scope in” high position represented by vice president in charge of human resources “and” authority ” Managers and general employees “to be managed

2. What is “human resources”?


Let’s understand that human resources means “words out of the four management resources that point to humans only” .

Human resources are considered to be the most important of the four management resources. Human beings use things, people move money and corporate activities begin only after people make use of information.

Without humans, everything, money and information do not make much sense. The management resources that make up the base of corporate activities are human resources.


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① Most basic and important factors

Austrian-born business scholar Peter Drucker says, “Human resources, the whole man is the most productive but the most variable resource among those entrusted to the enterprise, and the great potential capability It is a resource that we have. ”

And it is management’s responsibility to efficiently and effectively utilize the various abilities and possibilities of human resources.

It is the idea that whether management can present measures to motivate human resources depends greatly on management.

② Ask for freedom of behavior and autonomy

Human resources, as an aspect of greatly different character from other management resources,

  • Human resources are “living human”
  • Emotions and intent such as emotions and pleasures

It has an element of. We can not hope to optimize human resources merely by compulsion or restraint from managers and other administrators.

What is important here is the freedom of individual action and the autonomy that controls itself . It can be said that it is interesting only in humans who are not in “Mono, money and information” but also have great possibilities because of difficulties.

③ There is no absolute management method

There is no absolute management method for managing human resources .

New management theory is born in various fields in corporate activities, but the new paradigm does not emerge in human resource management.

It can be said that innovative and decisive management methods for living human beings with feelings and intentions do not easily change .

This will not change for the future. In other words, it tells infinite possibilities in human resource management .

3. Purpose and role of human resource management


Next, let’s mention the purpose and role of human resource management. Human resource management can set goals from a total of four.

  1. Increase contribution to achieving strategy by management short-term target  results
  2. Acquire the ability to build management long-term target  strategies and improve their abilities
  3. Individual short-term target  Fair and provide evaluation and treatment based on information disclosure
  4. Personal long-term objective  Support human development and growth through career

It is a big point to think about managing human resources from a complex viewpoint ofmanagement and individuals, short term and long term .

Background / transition

Human resource management was originally popularized in the United States, and then began to be used commonly in Britain and elsewhere.

The prototype is a concept that combines behavioral science such as human capital theory and human relations theory which was born in the 1960s. It was born from reflection of the stalemation of economic support measures to developing countries in the postwar era of the United States.

In addition to the theory that the investment in education and training is effective in order to make the most of knowledge, experience, skills and the like accumulated in humans, the concept of corporate management, that is, the strategy, etc. is added to the theory that human resource management form It was made.

4. Three model concepts of human resource management


Human resource management has three model concepts. Let’s briefly introduce each model outline. In order to deepen the understanding of human resource management, it is effective to read and understand model concepts.

  1. Michigan model
  2. Harvard model
  3. High performance HRM (AMO theory )

① Michigan model

As the name suggests, the Michigan model is based on research conducted at the University of Michigan in the 1980s. It is argued that “human resource management should be done with emphasis on consistency with management strategy” .

In this model,

  1. Hiring and selection
  2. Talent evaluation
  3. Human resources development
  4. Compensation

That dropped into the strategic management of the four functions, it will increase the performance in the two wheels of the individual not only the organization ‘s management that.

In addition to closing up human resources, improving compatibility with management aspects such as management strategy, management environment, organizational structure can be said to be a major feature not found in conventional human resource management and human resources management theory.

② Harvard model

The Harvard model is a human resources management model born on the basis of research results conducted at Harvard University in the 1980s. Human resources management area,

  1. The impact of employees
  2. Flow of human resources
  3. Compensation system
  4. Job system

It is defined as consisting of four fields. And human resources management, characteristics of the employees, the labor market, receive a very large impact from such management strategy and “situational factors”, “stakeholders’ interests,” You are those.

Human resource management in the Harvard model aims to “meet the goals of the organization and individuals” as a result of the increase in “cost effectiveness” by improving the “commitment and ability” of the employees .

The big difference with the Michigan model,

  • The extent of the area of human resource management
  • We also focus on the internal psychological state of employees

It is a point.

③ High performance HRM (AMO theory)

High performance HRM is an abbreviation for “Human Resource Management”. High performance There are several theories in HRM, but AMO theory, among other things, can be read from the initials of AMO,

  1. Ability
  2. Motivation
  3. Opportunity

It is a manpower resource management model based on three elements.

We believe that if we can improve three elements of ability, motivation, opportunity, we can enhance superiority in sustainable competition in organization .

High Performance As an effect of HRM, it is more effective than Human Capital such as skill, experience, qualifications and education of individual employees than “aspects of human capital” such as the satisfaction of employees for companies and work and the “trust in the organization” of “employee motivation” I know that it is easy to act on .

④ High performance HRM (PIRK model)

High performance HRM has a PIRK model that is positioned separately from AMO theory. With PIRK theory,

  1. Delegation of power
  2. Sharing information
  3. Fair remuneration (reward)
  4. Knowledge attributed to employees

It is a human resources management model composed of four elements.

By the above four elements, we will raise the fairness (procedural justice perception) and emotional organizational commitment (employee’s organizational commitment) felt by employees.

In other words, because PIRK model increases sense of belonging, it is possible to lower intention of leaving or changing jobs .

⑤ Talent management

Talent management refers to a structure within a company that actively uses talents and talents (talents) to realize management strategies .

Securing and using skilled human resources will have a major impact on the company’s permanent sustainability.

In talent management, we will manage to cultivate talented people who will be involved in the management department, which is the core of the company in the future.

In particular,

  • Adoption
  • Training
  • Arrangement
  • Evaluation
  • treatment
  • Training successor training

We manage all human resource management such as . It can be called human resource management to foster competent leaders who can push things forward to achieve management goals and performance targets .


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5. How do you motivate employees through human resource management?


How do you improve your motivation through human resources management? High performance In HRM, “high commitment system” is linked to motivation of employees .

High performance HRM,

  • Adoption
  • Selection
  • education
  • Compensation
  • Job analysis
  • Performance evaluation

, Etc. By implementing measures for these, certain results are born, and the result is deeply linked to the commitment among employees.

The HRM system not only enhances the fairness of the endogenous motivation and decision-making process for employee’s work but also enhances the social exchange theory between the organization and individuals within the organization .

6. Challenges and problems of human resource management


Have you understood that human resource management is a management system that greatly contributes to achieving management goals?

However, with regard to the existence of causality, it has not been explained logically by many studies. In cases where it is rare to verify the order of causal relationships rarely, it is rare that proving causality is insufficient while acknowledging correlation .

Regarding the method of measuring causality,

  • There is no agreement on how to measure corporate performance
  • Necessary to analyze across micro and macro

There are such things as there is no measurement method with consensus formation .

① Issues and problems of the Michigan model

The Michigan model is a model in which corporate performance and human resources management act together .

The top priority is corporate strategy and human resource management measures are implemented to achieve that, so if strategy works well and corporate performance improves, the value of human resources will increase according to the degree of contribution.

In this way, because the theory of the company side comes first, the individuals, that is, the problems of human nature and employment security of workers are neglected .


  • It tends to neglect aspects such as grasping potential of individuals
  • Under such circumstances, personnel selection, compensation decisions, human resource development will be done

It also includes problems such as.

② Issues and problems of Harvard model

The Harvard model is based on a worker’s view that employs employees as social assets. In the company’s long-term management strategy, consistency and harmony with human resource management are said to be indispensable .

However, it is said to have the following problems and problems.

  • From consistency and harmony, tendency to emphasize employees
  • Various types of employment are mixed, employment adjustment is comparatively easy, and the suppression function works against the desires of employees
  • Downplay the existence of trade unions to
  • Reduces the organization of the trade unions, it is neglected by employers and employees each other to exert a force with the cooperation with both become

7. Practical examples of human resource management


How is human resource management being practiced within a company? We will introduce practical examples of car manufacturers and electric manufacturers and two companies. Please refer to practical case examples and apply it to other industries as well.

Nissan Motor

At Nissan Motor, we set up a personnel committee in 2000 to undertake talent management .

The Human Resources Committee considers the talent of each company and each region as a common asset, and the headquarters is centrally and centrally manages the rearrangement of talented personnel capable of competence and capacity development from a global perspective.

Regarding personnel who became the target of the next generation leader, we carried out career development plan and leadership training individually, and since 2003 also introduced a career coaching system.

This is a proposal for five people specialized in human resources field to list and foster human resources who will be responsible for the next generation.

We also introduced a new managerial evaluation system that determines diversity that emphasizes diversity and “Nissan Way” and its performance and performance based on the 2005 action guidelines “Nissan Way”.

Besides that, we also incorporate an award program as part of building a  praising culture”. Human resource management is being promoted to support the inner face of employees.

Electronics company

What about electric machine manufacturers conducting overseas business under product-specific business headquarters? This maker implemented human resource management measures in 2005 .

In order to incorporate the utilization of human resources including overseas subsidiaries into the management strategy,

  • Personnel of local employees
  • Public Relations Activity
  • Decision right to procure supplier of raw material parts
  • Determination of inventory and production volume

The delegation of authority such as that was proceeding.


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  • Headquarters must judge from a global perspective
  • The headquarters organization that can not be moved locally is involved
  • We need a long-term vision of management

Problems and tasks have become a pile of problems, securing personnel dispatched from the head office to overseas, and the headquarters and overseas affiliates cooperate to establish a system to recruit, manage and nurture human resources.

In addition, we also reviewed the personnel management rules such as evaluation and treatment between Japan and overseas. While leaving it to the site, we created a management that performs certain governance by the headquarters.

8. Difference from Human Resources Labor Management


In a word similar to human resource management, there is the word “personnel labor management”. Perhaps there are people who are accustomed to the terms “personnel labor” and “personnel labor management” rather than human resource management.

Human resources management and personnel labor management are different in meaning. Let’s look at the thought and strategic aspects of human resources labor management.

  1. Thought / premise
  2. Strategic Aspect
  3. Line management
  4. Main management method

① thought / premise

Thought and premise of human resource management Ideology and premise of personnel labor management
Framework of action Sense of mission Norms, customs and practices
Management work for workers Training Monitoring
Contract relationship Goal is to exceed the psychological contract Accurate fulfillment of specified contract contents
Rule Pursue beyond the rules that can be done Clear rules and compliance are important

Personnel labor management differs from human resource management in that norms, practices, rules are emphasized and conflicts are institutionalized .

② Strategic Aspect

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Key relationship Companies and Customers Workers and managers
Initiative Integration fragmentary
Consistency with business plan Become very large Low
Decision making speed Tend to be late

From the strategic aspect of personnel labor management, you will find that it is not located in a position that will affect the strategy itself as much as human resource management .

③ Line management

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Role of line management Always aim for change and innovation Business process centering
Major administrator Administrators of top management, division chiefs, and lines Personnel labor · labor relations expert
Management skills required of them support Negotiation

Human resource management is closely related to management strategy, but you can see that Human Resources Labor Management focuses on coordinating and negotiating between divisions, mainly by the Human Resources Department .

④ Main management method

Human resource management Human Resources Labor Management
Management method It is integrated with the overall goal of the company and it is highly important It is separated from the overall goal of the enterprise and the importance is low
Compensation Performance and synchronization Job evaluation
Organizational situation Harmony on the premise of labor-management cooperation Negotiation on the premise of conflict between labor and management
communication The organization moves with direct, good teamwork Indirect

Personnel labor management can be regarded as completely contrary to human resources management.

9. Difference between human resources management and organizational behaviorism (organizational behavior theory)


We examined the difference between human resources management and personnel labor management, but here we will refer to the difference between human resources management and organizational behavior theory (organizational behavior theory). What is the difference between human resources management and organizational behavior studies?

What is organizational behavior?

Both Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior Theory are “mechanisms related to human behavior”, both of which are positioned as management towards the achievement of corporate strategy.

  • Human beings are moved and utilized by creating or modifying institutions and mechanisms such as human resources management evaluation system
  • Organizational Behavior Theory Move organizations and humans by ‘individual efforts’ such as superiors and managers

In other words, organization theory of behavior can be defined as “an internal structure of a company that gives a little or less influence to humans and organizations .”

Common point

The common themes of human resources management and organizational behavior theory are in the main theme that they are aiming for.

Both human resource management and organizational behavior theory, “in order to achieve the goals of the organization and companies, moving the organization and people,” the main theme that has been the target based on the management philosophy and management strategies in a number of companies set is It is.

Although the way to achieve each goal is different , it can be said that the main theme is how to organize and how people should behave in order to achieve and realize it is common to both .


Human resources management, in order to move people by the structure and institution of companies ,

  • Human resources policy and human resource system construction
  • Organizational structure reform
  • Creation of organizational culture

Take concrete actions such as.

Meanwhile, the theory of organizational behavior is to move the organization by each individual’s effort ,

It is important to recognize them in detail.

Human resource management is driven by the power of enterprises, whereas organization theory of behavior is the big difference between moving both organizations by individual qualities and initiatives.