History of organizational behavior theory

this presentation, I will explain how the organizational behavior theory has followed the transition.

By reading this sentence, you can understand the overview of representative assertions such as the flow of change in organizational behavior theory and Maslow ‘s desire for 5 stages.

behavior theory
behavior theory

First let’s look at the flow of change in organizational behavior theory.

The early (1910s) organizational behavior theory is based on the idea of ” economic person model ” that people act based on economic rationality , and “scientific management method” and “X theory” “SR Theory “has been developed.

After that, after the “Hawthorne experiment”, in the 1930s, the idea that people’s behavior is not based only on economic rationality came out, and the ” social man model ” was devised.

As a management method based on the idea of this social worker model, “SOR research” and “human relations theory” were devised.

In the 1950’s, ” Self-realization model ” was devised which puts value on efforts to achieve self goals, and as a management method based on this concept, “Y theory” “MH theory” “Participative management” can be mentioned.

After that, in the 1980s, the idea of ” complicated person model ” based on the diversity of people making up the organization appeared and management methods such as “condition conformity theory”, “individual management”, “spirit of investigation” A way of thinking was born.

History of organizational behavior theory

The major turning points of these organizational behavioral theories are said to be in the “Hawthorne experiment” conducted at the Western Electric Company in the US in the latter half of the 1920s and early 1930s.

The Hawthorn experiment was an experiment conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical environment of the work site and the work efficiency of the workers and the relation between the lighting brightness and work efficiency was investigated.

As the initial expectation of the experiment, it was said that productivity will increase if the lighting is made brighter, and productivity will decrease if it is darkened.

However, as a result of the experiment, when the lighting was made brighter, productivity improvement was certainly seen, but even if the lighting was darkened, no decrease in productivity was seen.

This is believed to be the reason why the workers who participated in the experiment raised work efficiency by being aware that “we are participating in global experiments”.

Also in this Hawthorne experiment, Mayo of Harvard University reported that there were unofficial organizations within the group as stipulated in “logic of efficiency” and that fellow consciousness in informal organizations and norms within groups influenced work efficiency We found out what to give and developed the idea of human relations theory.

As a method of management before this Hawthorne experiment was carried out, the scientific management method advocated by Frederic Taylor was the focus, but since this experiment, the theory based on human relations theory has been the main focus.

The significance of the Hawthorne experiment is said to have significance in proving that corporate management does not go well by just scientific management law that gives priority to work efficiency and ignoring the human aspect of workers.

Let me introduce three representative theories on the premise of the idea of human relations theory.

① Maslow’s desire for 5 stages

② McGregor’s X theory · Y theory

③ Motivation and sanitation theory of Hersburg

Let’s see each in detail.

① desire 5 stage theory of Maslow
in the desire 5 stage theory, the human desire – in order from the low-dimensional, ” physiological needs “, ” safety desire ,” ” cognitive evaluation desire ,” “self-dignity desire ,” ” self-realization desire of” It is divided into 5 stages.

In this desire 5 stage theory, it is thought that if a low dimensional desire is satisfied, a person acts to satisfy even higher level desire.

Physiological desire : desire for food, clothing, shelter

Necessity to secure safety : desire to protect from risks and dangers by belonging to a group

Cognitive appetite for appreciation : desire to be evaluated by others

Desire for self-esteem : desire to be respected by others

Self-realization desire : desire to realize the self-existential significance

By utilizing this desire 5 stage theory, it is possible to judge whether the incentive presented by the organization is attractive to workers and whether it matches the desires of most people constituting the organization It can be considered.

History of organizational behavior theory

② McGregor’s X theory and Y theory
This X theory and Y theory is based on the fact that Douglas McGregor gives two opposed ideas to human beings as “X theory of command control by an exercise of authority” and “Y theory of integration and self-control” We propose it as.

The idea of X theory and Y theory is similar to the idea of “sexual theory” “sexual evil”.Business management consultant in Tehran, Iran

In the theory of X, taking the idea of sexual theory, it is effective to take administrative oversight by order and compulsion, taking human beings as creatures who want to be lazy by nature, they do not want to take responsibility and leave their jobs when they are left alone It was made.

On the other hand, in the Y theory, we take the idea of sexual theory and think that “human beings are the living creatures who intend to work in their own way, acting themselves to achieve self-realization, progressing and solving problems”, and labor voluntary It is said that management that respects gender is effective.

The X theory is classified as a human behavioral model having many desires of low dimension and the Y theory is classified into a human behavioral model having many desires of high dimension respectively and we are preaching the superiority of management based on the Y theory.

History of organizational behavior theory

③ motivation-hygiene theory of Hazubagu
in the motivation-hygiene theory, there are factors that lead to dissatisfaction and factors that lead to satisfaction for the work, it referred to as a factor motivating the former, called the hygiene factor of the latter.

Motivation factors include job achievement and expansion of responsibility, ability improvement and self-growth, etc. The hygiene factors include company policies and management methods, working environment and working conditions (money, time, status) etc. there is.

In general, even if measures are taken against sanitary factors that are the cause of unsatisfactory, it is said that it merely resolves the dissatisfaction of workers and it will not lead to an increase in satisfaction or motivation for work.

As described above, the research on the organizational behavior theory is a field that studies the influence of the behavior of people and groups within an organization on productivity and performance, so it is important for those who work within a company organization, For anyone in the position, knowledge about this organizational behavior theory is essential to everyone.

In utilizing these theories and thinking in actual business, it is not a thing that can be utilized individually, but it will be more likely to utilize a combination of multiple theories depending on circumstances and partner.

We will not only grasp the content and way of thinking, such as Maslow’s desire for five stage philosophy, Hersburg’s motivation and hygiene theory, but also understand it in conjunction with how to catch behaviors of people in the background (human model) Let’s see.